Solar Panels San Diego

What should you consider before having solar panels installed in San Diego ? How should you decide which installation company is right for you? What type of solar should you choose? photovoltaic or solar thermal? Are there upkeep or maintenance costs?

All of these are valid and common questions when considering solar panels. It’s a big investment and so it’s understandable that you will have questions and concerns. I’ve collated some basic knowledge, tips and advice on how to ensure you find a good company to install your solar panels and highlight some of the points you should consider when having photovoltaic panels installed at your property.

Solar Energy Cost

1. MCS Approved Installers

Firstly, and most importantly, ensure that your chosen installer is an “MCS approved installer”. MCS stands for Microgeneration Certification Scheme and it is an indication to consumers that the installer has been assessed and adheres to standards and regulations that are set by the MCS.

MCS Approved Installers are awarded certification as a result of a thorough assessment of the supply, design, installation, set-to-work and commissioning of renewable microgeneration technologies, solar panels.

2. MCS Approved Solar Panels

Alongside MCS Approved installers, make sure that your panels are also MCS approved. MCS Approved Solar Panels also undergo rigorous standards.

To receive certification, MCS Approved Solar Panels not only receive product testing, but the manufacturing processes, materials, procedures and staff training also undergo assessment. Certification is only awarded if every step and stage meets the criteria.

3. NIC EIC Certification

All electricians who provide services in the UK should be NIC EIC certified. Solar installers are no different and you should make sure the company you choose has received certification. You will then be safe in the knowledge that your system complies with national safety requirements as stipulated by the governing body responsible NIC EIC certification.

4. Solar Panel Quotes

Don’t rely on the first or cheapest company you find – ask for quotes from a number solar installation companies, and let the companies know that you plan to do this. This should help ensure that you receive competitive quotes and it also gives you a benchmark from which you can compare quotes against quotes. It might give you some leverage to “play” companies off against one another to get that quote figure knocked down a little. Companies only exist to make money, so they won’t want to lose a potential customer.

Talk to companies who visit your property to provide you with quotes and ask plenty of questions. This will give better understanding and knowledge of what to expect and what you are told. Consider all your quotes before committing to any one in particular.

5. Cheapest Doesn’t Mean Best

As with most things in life, the cheapest quote you can find won’t necessarily get you the best end result. That doesn’t mean you should opt for the most expensive solar panels either. Find a quote which you feel is fair and just as importantly, choose a company that you feel comfortable about dealing with, a company who answers your questions and takes time to explain the technical side of things in a manner that you understand.

This doesn’t just apply to the company’s bottom line figure, but also the individual materials and equipment the company quotes for. If you haven’t been provided with a detail or itemised quote, ask for one. This way, you will know what equipment and materials you are paying for, and you can compare this to your other quotes.

Solar Lights Outdoor

6. Research!

The technology is constantly evolving and in terms of energy generation for the masses, it is still quite new so there will always be improvements and enhancements being made. Ask your company what products they will be using for your install and take some time to do some background research on them: Are there any problems with the panels? Are there newer versions? Is the price about right? Are there any forums which advise for or against them? Learn about solar panel technology and the terminology used, this will help you avoid being “blinded” by jargon.

7. Calculate Potential Feed in Tariff Earnings

The Government’s Feed in Tariff has been extremely influential in the popularity of solar panels. You get paid for all electricity generated from your solar panels, even if you consume it personally. As a general overview, from 3rd March 2012, the rate is 21p/kWh and then from 1st July 2012 the rate of return will be between 16.5p/kWh – 13.6p/kWh. This rate will depend on the number of panel installations completed between March and April 2012. You can also use one of the many online calculators to see how much money you could be earning on your potential investment.

The Feed in Tariff means that whilst your initial investment may be a big outlay, not only will you save money on your energy bills, but you will also generate an income. This takes the investment in solar panels way beyond most returns from other “normal” monetary investments. If you have money invested in savings accounts, maybe consider solar panels.

8. Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Panels

Take some time to decide whether solar thermal or photovoltaic systems would be more beneficial to your property. Solar thermal generates hot water, whilst photovoltaic panels will generate electricity.

If you are unsure as to the system you want, contact companies and ask which system they would recommend. There’s no reason why you cannot have both systems installed and if you decide that solar thermal panels are your best option, still consider photovoltaic panels, if for no other reason than it could in theory pay for itself and your solar thermal panel system.

How To Install A Solar Panel

9. RHI – The Renewable Heat Incentive

The Renewable Heat Incentive does not provide such a good return on your investment as the Feed in Tariff, but it is still a good incentive that deserves careful consideration. The scheme’s aim is to encourage property owners to reduce their heating energy consumption and carbon foot print by providing the following benefits:

0.085p per kWh return for 20 years
energy consumption reduction
A Government payment contribution
10. Maintenance Costs
You will undoubtedly be told that there are no upkeep or maintenance costs involved with solar, and throughout life expectancy of a solar panel installation, there should in fact be little maintenance or upkeep in regards to the panels themselves. However, the inverter, which converts direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC), will, at some point in the 25 years, need replacing. The cost to replace your inverter will be somewhere near 1000, and so this should form part of your calculation and consideration for solar panels.

Cost To Install Solar Panels

Normally, solar systems will be installed on rooftops or high up above the ground in order to get the best exposure to direct sunlight especially in San Diego. The result of this is that less able-bodied people may require assistance to have the solar panels cleaned or to clear any fallen leaves or debris from on and around the panels to keep them working at their maximum capacity.

Ways to Save Mother Earth

Solar Energy Cost Voyagerix/iStock/Getty Images If the power goes out at your home for a significant period of time, or if you have a home that is beyond the reach of the power lines, heating and lighting your home without electricity may be a bit more difficult, but it can be done using alternative energy sources. For heating and temporary lighting, appliances that burn kerosene, propane, wood or other fuels are a viable option, but for long-term lighting, battery or solar-based technologies may be safer. Wood A fireplace or a wood stove is a reliable way to provide both heat and a small amount of light for your home, as long as you have a steady supply of wood available. Harvesting, cutting, splitting, transporting and storing enough wood for a season can be a lot of work, and it may not always be possible, such as for those who live in cities. Many wood stoves can also be used for cooking and heating water, and newer models are both much safer for your health and much more efficient. Kerosene Kerosene heaters are a popular way of heating homes in many areas, especially for emergency or supplemental heating purposes. While kerosene burns relatively cleanly, it still has the potential to produce carbon monoxide, so proper ventilation and a working carbon monoxide detector are recommended. Local building codes may forbid or regulate the use of kerosene heaters, so check with your city building and permit department before buying one. Kerosene is also commonly used as a fuel in oil lamps for lighting. Propane/Natural Gas Many propane or gas-fired forced-air furnaces will not run without electricity, even models that use pilot lights, as they require the blower fan to distribute the heat. Some steam or hot water boilers will run without electricity, but in many cases, you will need to rely on alternative heating sources. Wall-mounted space heaters are available in versions that burn either natural gas or propane. Most models do not require electricity to operate, though some may have optional fans for distributing the heated air that require electricity. Externally vented wall heaters are the best choice, because they allow the combustion gases to exit the home through the flue or vent. Models without external vents, also called ventless heaters, are available, as well, but you must ventilate the room properly to avoid excessive carbon monoxide buildup. Check your local building codes before installing either type of heater. Solar Photovoltaic panels, also called solar panels, can be used to generate your own electricity during the daytime and, by storing it with deep-cycle batteries, that power can be used for lighting purposes at night. Automotive-style 12-volt light fixtures can be connected directly to the battery bank, or regular 120-volt household lighting could be used through an inverter, which converts the 12-volt DC current from the battery into the 120-volt AC current a typical house uses. Solar energy can also be used to provide supplemental heating for your home. Simply opening the curtains covering south-facing windows during the day can allow heat from the sun to warm your home, but you can also build or buy passive solar heaters to increase the heat output. Materials like stone and concrete used indoors can regulate your home's temperature. Because such materials are so dense, they take time to adjust to temperature changes. During the day they absorb heat from the sun, then slowly release it at night. Other Candles and lamps fueled by lamp oil can be used for lighting, as well as rechargeable solar lights or lights powered by disposable batteries. Both lamp oil and batteries may get expensive in long-term situations, however. For temporary situations, portable generators can be used for lighting and for powering the central heating system in some cases. Related Searches References EPA: Does Your Wood Stove Have A Dirty Little Secret? Web MD: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Topic Overview CSPC: CSPC Stresses Kerosene Heater Safety Fairfax County, Virginia: Ventless Fireplace Saftey Department of Energy: Planning for Home Renewable Energy Systems Home Power Magazine: Solar Electricity Basics Department of Energy: Passive Solar Home Design Photo Credit Voyagerix/iStock/Getty Images Promoted By Zergnet Comments Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus. You May Also Like How to Heat Your House Without a Furnace With heating bills rising all the time, it’s no surprise that people cannot longer afford to keep their furnace on like they... How to Live Without Electricity When most people enter a dark room, they reach for the light switch automatically. It's second nature. A 1-year-old can figure out... How to Heat a Greenhouse During the Winter With Water You can heat your greenhouse at night without using electricity. Lining one wall with blackened, water-filled jugs or barrels will keep your... How to Light a Gas Fireplace Without Electricity One advantage to having a gas fireplace is the ability to manage the unit in the event of a power failure. Electricity... Lighting Methods Without Electricity Lighting methods that don't require electricity are invaluable whether you're planning to live off the grid, preparing for a power outage, reducing... How to Light Your Range Without Electricity If the power goes out, an oven cannot be used, but the surface burners can still be used. Find out how to... How Do I Set Up a Generator?

Dulzura Solar Panel Installation Companies

So, what exactly is involved in calculating solar panels cost in Dulzura? When thinking about solar power very few people know the way the cost of solar panel systems is actually measured. Or even, for that matter, do we automatically grasp the connection relating to the cost of solar power and the value of solar power. We all know that gasoline prices are in dollars per gallon. We likewise are all aware of approximately how far we’ll be able to drive after spending 40 bucks for a tank of gas. In contrast to a tank of gas, the value of which can be consumed pretty much instantly, solar panels deliver their value across a period of time.

Average Cost Of Solar Panels

Dulzura 3 Undervalued Solar Leaders

Many homeowners take great pride in caring for their lawns. Many people spend lots of time planting various types of colorful plants. Others spend a significant amount of money on decorations to dress up their lawns. If you enjoy decorating your lawn, whether for different seasons or just the holidays, you may become a target for thieves. Fortunately, there are steps you can take to protect your lawn decorations from theft. Promoted by Things You'll Need Rope Outdoor lights (electrical or solar) Home security signs Choose heavy items for lawn decorations. For example, stone statues, rocks and wrought iron furniture will make it difficult for thieves to make a quick getaway with these types of decorations. Use thick rope to tightly tie down any lightweight holiday decorations on display in your yard. This may deter or at least slow down any thieves who attempt to run away with your inflatable Santa Claus. Install outdoor lights around your house. Place lights around walkways and driveways. Install a motion detector that will turn the lights on if someone enters the yard. This will surprise intruders and may cause them to flee. Choose outdoor lighting that can also serve as accent lighting for decorative purposes. Place home security signs around the outside of your house. Position your security signs near your outdoor lighting. This combination will likely discourage thieves from choosing to steal ornaments from your property because of the fear of a more sophisticated security system around the corner. Place various types of prickly plants around your yard ornaments. Planting a cactus or sticker bushes around your decorations will provide a natural deterrent against thieves. Invest in electric fencing around your decorations. Electric fencing will give the thieves a nice little shock when they try to steal your property. Adopt a dog. Adopt a homeless dog form your local animal shelter. Protect your lawn decorations by training a great guard dog. Dogs not only make loving companions, they will protect their owners and home. Thieves will be less likely to approach a home that has a barking dog. Join or start a neighborhood watch group. Create a neighborhood watch team to serve as extra "eyes and ears" against thieves who might like to steal your yard ornaments. Make sure all members of your group are aware of any thefts in your neighborhood and what actions to take if they encounter a robbery in the future. Related Searches Promoted By Zergnet Comments Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus. You May Also Like Protecting Outdoor Plants from Frost Protecting tender plants from temperatures near or below freezing, 32 degrees Fahrenheit, extends production in vegetable gardens and may allow the plants... How to Build a Wood Shed for My Lawn Mower A shed is an important piece for any homeowner to store outside equipment and supplies. Many sheds can be bought premade, but... How to Secure Lawn Decorations From Being Stolen Lawn decorations can turn a ho-hum yard into an artistic wonderland, for the holidays or every day. But the decor is also... How to Make Wooden Outdoor Christmas Decorations If your annual holiday celebration begins when store shelves are stocked with new outdoor ornaments—because last year’s batch of pricey, flimsy imports... How do I Turn Outdoor Christmas Lights Into Solar? Using solar power to operate your outdoor Christmas lights is an environmentally friendly and money saving project. By converting your current Christmas... How to Make a Life-Size Santa Claus Doll Create a life-size Santa doll as a Christmas decoration for your front hall or as part of a more intricate Christmas display.... Solar Water Heater

SunPower: A Super Solar Stock With Amazing Upside Potential - SunPower Corporation (NASDAQ:SPWR)

It is now the high time to do our own share in protecting Earth and her wonderful creatures.

Our planet is indeed gasping for breath right now, our harmful pollution is indeed choking her slowly and continues to strip off her ozone layer. I think it is about time to give our response to this alarming state of the only planet we live in, by doing our own share of protecting her with doing simple things that will surely stir big difference. For if not, we might be harming ourselves in the years ahead as well, for nature has its own destructive ways of getting back at us humans, the signs of earth's displeasure with inappropriate and harmful activities of humans are now seen and felt all across the globe like the global warming, climate change, acid rain, drought, flash floods and other forms of natural catastrophes.

Antarctic glaciers and ice sheets are melting at a fast rate, the populations of bees worldwide are dwindling down, numerous species of flora and fauna all across the world are becoming extinct as years go by, the ecosystem is continuously harmed, polar bears are getting hungry and the list goes on.

Here are some practical and small ways that could help our planet get a sigh of relief. Collective small efforts by those who are genuinely concerned with earth's welfare will inevitably help her by great leap and bounds.

1. Don’t allow your children to free those colorful balloons in mid-air. Teach your children not to release balloons. For balloons that escaped the grasps of your children that will hover the sky and eventually fell into oceans and seas will be mistaken as (irresistible meal) jellyfish by sea turtles. Sea turtles take a lot of years to mature and unfortunately some of them got killed by eating balloon or plastic bags. Sea turtles are part of the delicate cycle and if their population is affected other species of marine creatures are also under threat.

2. Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. Make it a habit to reduce the things we need or we consume. Purchase only things that we only need and eat only what you can. Let us do our share not to be part of the problem or should I say part of the garbage problem. Reuse all the things that can still be repaired/fixed or those things that are still okay.

Recycle things to conserve our resources, collect old newspapers, books, magazines, used papers, bottles (plastic and glass), and any other things that you could sell in junkyards. There is money in garbage and at the same time we’re doing our part in recycling process.

3. Be kind to trees. As much as possible use forests products and timber very well with optimum efficiency. You may use the back of coupons, use pencils until it become as small as possible, and don’t play with matches. Try to get involved in tree planting in your local conservation program. This could be fun as trees can give us added oxygen, shades for people and a refuge to different insects and birds.

4. Broken scientific apparatus like thermometer, barometers, manometers, sphygmanometers, and float valves and other things that have mercury on it should be disposed properly. Avoid throwing this in rivers for mercury is toxic and poisonous not only to the fishes and invertebrates but to the humans as well.

5. Minimize the use of refrigerators, foam blowers, solvents, aerosol spray propellants, fire extinguishers, and chemical reagents for these contains chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that are responsible to the climate change and depletion of our precious ozone layer. Do not burn plastic please this habit is also harmful to our ozone layer.

6. Do not buy exotic and endangered animals. These animals are intended to be in the wild not as mere decorations to your home, pets or playthings.

7. Educate our children, friends and even our local community about the harmful effects of dynamite fishing, illegal logging, animal poaching, over reliance to wood products and hos of other environmental issues.

8. Do not even bother to try eating exotic and endangered animals for they are not intended to be part of human’s diet. Let the other predatory animal do the stalking and eating hehehe you’re not fit to be a lion. One of the most badly hit by human's penchant for delicious foods are the sharks (shark fin soup), sturgeon (sturgeon roes - caviar- are valued for their great taste and one of the most prized eats in the world), snakes, sea turtles and many other animals.

9. Do not patronize things (coats, purse, belt, etc.) that are made up of an endangered animal or animal part (like skin, fur, bones, tusks, antlers, etc.).

10. Be responsible with your garbage, dispose them properly. Also try to use segregation scheme with your trashes, separate those decomposable from those that are not. You may utilize a compost pit to serve as haven for all of your organic trashes and eventually use this as your fertilizer for your backyard garden or trees.

11. Do the traditional way of helping to conserve our environment by virtue of avoiding smoke-belching.

12. Conserve electrical energy and water by employing tips such as regular cleaning of our bulb and fluorescent light in our home, use only appliances when needed, avoiding dripping of water from our faucets, and reporting any case of broken water pipelines to local government.

13. Support any environmental conservation in your community, you may give some donations if this will not bother you to support their cause. You may also join them in their information dissemination drive and campaign as well. You may also do things that can benefit our environment. If you're living in nearby beaches try putting old tires in the sea, this will serve as sanctuary for fishes to lay their eggs and for a place to hide from predators. You may have some vegetation (vegetables, trees or ornamental plants) in your own backyard, for extra oxygen in your area.

14. Support and visit eco-tours near you, these may promote awareness about the importance of ecology to your children, relative and friends.

15. When visiting any tourism site/protected parks please be responsible with your trashes as much as possible adhere to the rules and regulations of the park even if no one is looking at you.

16. Learn how to appreciate nature and her gifts to mankind and support any environmental campaigns that will help nurture and protect the only planet we live in.

This is my fifth entry to the hubchallenge...



Dulzura

Best Science Fair Project Websites for Kids


Solar Panels San Diego

Lincoln Acres Solar Tax Credit

So, what exactly is involved in calculating solar panels cost in Lincoln Acres? When thinking about solar power very few people know the way the cost of solar panel systems is actually measured. Or even, for that matter, do we automatically grasp the connection relating to the cost of solar power and the value of solar power. We all know that gasoline prices are in dollars per gallon. We likewise are all aware of approximately how far we’ll be able to drive after spending 40 bucks for a tank of gas. In contrast to a tank of gas, the value of which can be consumed pretty much instantly, solar panels deliver their value across a period of time.

Solar Energy Pros And Cons

Lincoln Acres 3 Undervalued Solar Leaders

Science Fair Projects for Kids and High School Students

These 12 sites have hundreds of science fair projects, experiments, and advice to help you create the best science fair project you can. They suggest easy projects for kids and more challenging award-winning science fair projects for high school students. I've used many of them with my daughter and students.

Some of the sites provide ideas. Some give you step-by-step instructions for conducting experiments. Some provide kids advice on creating projects for science fairs. And some have forums where kids can get help when they're stuck. Many of these websites have videos to illustrate their experiments.

Note: Some of these sites have forums, which require registration with an email address. Children under age 13 need parent approval to register and submit questions to these forums.

#1 Science Buddies

Strength: Detailed science projects and advice for kids

I most often recommend Science Buddies to students and parents starting work on a science fair project. This is an award-winning site was created by the Kenneth Lafferty Hess Family Charitable Foundation, and has a wealth of resources.

First is the Project Ideas section where you can browse a list of projects by area of study. Or try the Topic Selection Wizard. You answer a series of questions about your science interests and grade level, then you get a list of projects best suited to your situation.

The projects are very detailed. Each includes the background, questions to consider, a list of required supplies and equipment, and step-by-step instructions for the experimental procedure.

The next helpful resource is an extensive Science Fair Project Guide. Here you'll learn more about how to use the scientific method to build your project, how to write your report, and how to display your work. There is also advice on safety procedures, selecting supplies, and techniques.

Finally, you can go to the Ask an Expert Forum if you need more assistance. Look to see if another student has asked a similar question that answers yours. If you've been unable to resolve your problem with the help of a teacher or parent, this group of volunteer scientists will do their best to help you.

The Science Buddies site is easy to navigate. And and the extent of their resources is incomparable.

#2 Cool Science Projects

Strength: Tips for creating award-winning science fair projects

The folks at Cool-Science-Projects.com will walk you through all the steps of creating a science project. You'll find advice and resources for simpler projects for a homework assignment, as well as advice on creating show-stopper competition projects.

There are lots of ideas here by grade level. A few of the ideas have step-by-step instructions for carrying them out. The site's biggest strength is the section it devotes to advice on creating a winning science fair project.

#3 Steve Spangler's Science Experiments

Strength: Entertaining videos of experiments to spark you own project ideas

Steve Spangler's Science Experiments is a particularly useful website for science teachers and homeschool parents. Steve is a teacher's teacher who is televised weekly in Denver and who has appeared on nationally televised shows, demonstrating experiments and explaining the science behind them. He also conducts teacher training seminars throughout the country.

On this site, you can access his collection of science experiments, recipes and projects. His library of projects is accompanied by videos of how to use materials and equipment to conduct experiments. He also has an online store of supplies and equipment.

Steve's delight in science experiments is entertaining, and he'll get you and your kids excited about their experiments too!

#4 Reeko's Mad Scientist Lab

Strength: Advice for creating a successful science fair project

Reeko is passionate about science. His passion is contagious at Reeko's Mad Scientist Lab. Reeko takes a humorous and engaging approach to getting kids interested in science.

Reeko's focus is science experiments. He does not provide guidance for school science projects. But his experiments are a breeding ground for science project ideas.

This award-winning site has games, puzzles and quizzes. And there is a new forum where you can ask a question if you're having problems with your experiment or science in general.

#5 DragonflyTV

Videos of experiments with accompanying variation ideas for home experiments

DragonflyTV delves into experiments conducted by kids. The folks at PBS Kids Go! offer up plenty of videos of kids conducting experiments.

Then they provide ideas of variations your children can pick from for their own experiments. Or kids can give the Super Science Spinner a whirl until they find an idea they like. DragonflyTV also offers their 12 steps to science fair success.

#6 The Science Club

Strength: Detailed instructions, videos and illustrations of projects

Science Fair Ideas Exchange provides dozens of ideas for projects and experiments. If you need more than written explanations and illustrations, look here. The site is hosted by Bill Beaty of The Science Club.

Many projects are accompanied by a video that shows the key steps in creating your experiment or device. Projects are categorized as simple, medium and advanced.

Some of the video-taped experiments are hazardous, and should be supervised by an adult or conducted only by science teachers.

The Make It Solar Science Fair Information provides detailed information on carrying out a project using the scientific method and steps illustrated here. For teachers who have a website, Make It Solar provides the code to put the illustration at the right into your site with a link to its science fair info.

You'll also find planning guides, research tips, illustrations of display layouts. The site's focus is solar energy, so they furnish details on how to create several solar energy science projects.

#8 MadSci Network

Strength: Answers to your science experiment and project questions

Created by MadSci Network & Third Sector New England, MadSci Network is a great place to get answers to your science questions. Their extensive questions and answers archive can help you as you build your project.

The MadSci Library provides links to other resources by topic area. Look for answers to common science fair questions at the MadSci FAQ page.

If you can't find an answer in their archives of past questions, submit your own question.

#9 ZOOMsci

Strength: Kids' comments on how the experiments worked for them

ZOOMsci from by PBS Kids & WGBH has dozens of science activities for children in grades K-8. The emphasis is on having fun with science experiments, as opposed to a rigorous scientific method.

Pick an activity, carry it out, then record your observations and comments on the ZOOMsci site. Personally identifiable information is not collected here.

#10 Scientific Methods at pppst.com

Strength: Lessons to help kids learn the scientific method

Teachers and homeschool parents can make use of the resources for elementary and middle school students at Scientific Methods at pppst.com. There are presentations to use when teaching the scientific method, as well as printable materials.

For kids, there are links numerous resources to help them learn and remember the steps contained in the scientific method.

One of Mr. Donn's greatest strengths is that his material is readable at the upper elementary age level. So adults don't have to do a lot of interpretation.

#11 Hands-on Activities

Strength: Detailed instructions for experiments

At Exploratorium's Hands-on Activities page, you'll find lots of ideas for experiments and science projects. Activities are grouped by topic such as food, living things, or sports science.

Each activity provides a list of needed materials and step-by-step instructions. Illustrations and photos accompany the instructions. A few even have videos.

Note that some of the activities are not true "activities" but rather information on how something, like cycling, works.

If you are making a model of the solar system to scale, you have to take a look at the Build a Solar System activity. There is a scale calculator that uses the diameter of the sun you plan to create to calculate the dimensions for all of the planets and orbit radius of each planet.

#12 Step-by-Step Science Fair Success

Strength: Advice for teachers and schools on organizing a successful science fair

Step-by-Step Science Fair Success is a guide for teachers and schools to use in planning a science fair. Lily Ning, a middle school teacher, discusses:

  • Preplanning, sending out letters, and rules for group projects
  • Creating guidelines, submission categories, and scientific methodology to be used
  • Student tasks in proposing, planning, carrying out, and displaying project results
  • Assessment using a rubric and grading sheets for the notebook, paper, and display
  • Judging rubric

Directory of Science Project Websites

from LearningReviews.com

There are more than 30 science fair project and experiment websites listed in LearningReviews Directory of Science Project Websites. Some of the sites have simple experiments for kids to carry out at home. Others have more sophisticated projects for high school students and science fairs. Kids, parents and teachers write reviews about the sites they like best.

Other Science categories on the site help you to learn more about chemistry, astronomy, biology, etc., as you prepare for your science project.

Get Ready for Your Science Fair with Janice VanCleave

Janice VanCleave is a teacher, scientist and author of award-winning science books for kids. This virtual field trip is hosted on Meet Me at the Corner.org, where you can find more science fair project ideas.

Solar Panel Installation Cost

How to Install Solar Panels on a Tile Roof

solar cell research image by Albert Lozano from Fotolia.com If you go camping or hunting, or simply want to reduce your electricity bill, then a solar panel might make a good investment for you. Solar panels can charge batteries and run tools and appliances, all for free. They require no fuel, and because they have no moving parts, they need very little in the way of repair and maintenance. The only cost associated with solar panels is the up-front purchase cost. Even this can be reduced by making your own solar panels at home. Things You'll Need Solar cells Sheet of plywood Saw Narrow wooden strips Electrically conductive glue Spool of wire Wire cutters with wire-stripping attachments Silicone caulk Calculate the number of solar cells you will need to make your solar panel. Different cells provide different voltages. Divide the voltage you want your panel to produce by the voltage rating of your solar cells. This will give you the number of cells you need to produce 12 volts. Add a couple volts' worth of cells to this number to eliminate the danger of backcharging, which can damage your solar panel. Cut the plywood into a size just large enough to hold all the cells you need for your panel. Glue the narrow wooden strips all around the perimeter of the plywood you have cut. After your cell is assembled, these will hold up the Plexiglas cover to protect your panel from damage. Leave a small gap between two of the strips to run the wires out of the panel. Attach the solar cells to the panel of plywood, using the electrically conductive glue. Leave a small amount of this glue peeking above the top of each cell in order to form an electric link to the terminals on the bottoms of the cells. This edge of glue will be referred to as the "negative terminal" of each cell. Cut 6-inch lengths of wire from your spool of wire, using the wire cutters. Make as many short wires as there are cells in your panel, minus one. Remove 1 inch of insulation from one end of each wire, and 3 inches from the other ends, using the wire cutters. Glue the 3-inch-bare ends of these wires to the tops of the solar cells. Do not let any glue run from the top of the cell and touch the negative terminal of that cell. Do not let any bare wire touch the negative terminals of the cells. Leave the final cell without a short wire on top. Glue each of these wires to the exposed glue peeking over the edge of the cell next to it, after having allowed the glue on the other ends to dry. Allow this glue to dry. Cut two 3-foot sections of wire off the spool. Remove 1 inch of insulation from each end. Glue one to the negative terminal of the first cell, the one without any wire connected to it. Glue the other to the top of the cell on the other end, without any wire on top. Other People Are Reading How to Make a Solar Panel How to Make Homemade Solar Power Run the long wires out through the gap between the wooden strips. Glue them to the sides of the solar panel so that there is no possibility they will touch each other, which could short out your panel. Cut the Plexiglas sheet to match the size of your panel. Glue it to the top of the wooden strips. When the glue is dry, seal all the edges with silicone caulk to protect it from water. Tips & Warnings You can increase the power of your panel without changing the voltage by building other panels identical to the first. Connect their negative terminal wires to the negative terminal wire of the first panel, and their positive terminal wires (the wires connected to the top of the last solar cell) to the positive terminal wires of the first panel. Related Searches References SchoolPower Naturally: Solar Education for NY Solatron Technologies: Learn How to Wire Solar Panels and Batteries Photo Credit solar cell research image by Albert Lozano from Fotolia.com Promoted By Zergnet Comments Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus. Resources Green Living Tips: Solar Panel Basics You May Also Like How to Make a Solar Panel Solar cells convert the energy of the sun into electricity. By using items commonly found in the home or your local hardware... How to Make a Solar Panel Model A model of a solar panel can be a great visual aid for your science projects. Models help people to visualize how... How to Make Homemade Solar Power Humans have been using solar power for thousands of years to heat their homes. Making solar panels to collect and store the... Alternative Energy: How to Make Solar Cells & Solar Panels Free Solar Panel Construction Plans Free solar panel construction plans are available in a variety of places online. Some tutorials cover how a specific person built their...

Lincoln Acres

How to Remove Solar Water Heater Panels From a Roof


Solar Panels San Diego

Pauma Valley Solar Reviews

So, what exactly is involved in calculating solar panels cost in Pauma Valley? When thinking about solar power very few people know the way the cost of solar panel systems is actually measured. Or even, for that matter, do we automatically grasp the connection relating to the cost of solar power and the value of solar power. We all know that gasoline prices are in dollars per gallon. We likewise are all aware of approximately how far we’ll be able to drive after spending 40 bucks for a tank of gas. In contrast to a tank of gas, the value of which can be consumed pretty much instantly, solar panels deliver their value across a period of time.

Solar System Price

Pauma Valley 3 Undervalued Solar Leaders

It is now the high time to do our own share in protecting Earth and her wonderful creatures.

Our planet is indeed gasping for breath right now, our harmful pollution is indeed choking her slowly and continues to strip off her ozone layer. I think it is about time to give our response to this alarming state of the only planet we live in, by doing our own share of protecting her with doing simple things that will surely stir big difference. For if not, we might be harming ourselves in the years ahead as well, for nature has its own destructive ways of getting back at us humans, the signs of earth's displeasure with inappropriate and harmful activities of humans are now seen and felt all across the globe like the global warming, climate change, acid rain, drought, flash floods and other forms of natural catastrophes.

Antarctic glaciers and ice sheets are melting at a fast rate, the populations of bees worldwide are dwindling down, numerous species of flora and fauna all across the world are becoming extinct as years go by, the ecosystem is continuously harmed, polar bears are getting hungry and the list goes on.

Here are some practical and small ways that could help our planet get a sigh of relief. Collective small efforts by those who are genuinely concerned with earth's welfare will inevitably help her by great leap and bounds.

1. Don’t allow your children to free those colorful balloons in mid-air. Teach your children not to release balloons. For balloons that escaped the grasps of your children that will hover the sky and eventually fell into oceans and seas will be mistaken as (irresistible meal) jellyfish by sea turtles. Sea turtles take a lot of years to mature and unfortunately some of them got killed by eating balloon or plastic bags. Sea turtles are part of the delicate cycle and if their population is affected other species of marine creatures are also under threat.

2. Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. Make it a habit to reduce the things we need or we consume. Purchase only things that we only need and eat only what you can. Let us do our share not to be part of the problem or should I say part of the garbage problem. Reuse all the things that can still be repaired/fixed or those things that are still okay.

Recycle things to conserve our resources, collect old newspapers, books, magazines, used papers, bottles (plastic and glass), and any other things that you could sell in junkyards. There is money in garbage and at the same time we’re doing our part in recycling process.

3. Be kind to trees. As much as possible use forests products and timber very well with optimum efficiency. You may use the back of coupons, use pencils until it become as small as possible, and don’t play with matches. Try to get involved in tree planting in your local conservation program. This could be fun as trees can give us added oxygen, shades for people and a refuge to different insects and birds.

4. Broken scientific apparatus like thermometer, barometers, manometers, sphygmanometers, and float valves and other things that have mercury on it should be disposed properly. Avoid throwing this in rivers for mercury is toxic and poisonous not only to the fishes and invertebrates but to the humans as well.

5. Minimize the use of refrigerators, foam blowers, solvents, aerosol spray propellants, fire extinguishers, and chemical reagents for these contains chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that are responsible to the climate change and depletion of our precious ozone layer. Do not burn plastic please this habit is also harmful to our ozone layer.

6. Do not buy exotic and endangered animals. These animals are intended to be in the wild not as mere decorations to your home, pets or playthings.

7. Educate our children, friends and even our local community about the harmful effects of dynamite fishing, illegal logging, animal poaching, over reliance to wood products and hos of other environmental issues.

8. Do not even bother to try eating exotic and endangered animals for they are not intended to be part of human’s diet. Let the other predatory animal do the stalking and eating hehehe you’re not fit to be a lion. One of the most badly hit by human's penchant for delicious foods are the sharks (shark fin soup), sturgeon (sturgeon roes - caviar- are valued for their great taste and one of the most prized eats in the world), snakes, sea turtles and many other animals.

9. Do not patronize things (coats, purse, belt, etc.) that are made up of an endangered animal or animal part (like skin, fur, bones, tusks, antlers, etc.).

10. Be responsible with your garbage, dispose them properly. Also try to use segregation scheme with your trashes, separate those decomposable from those that are not. You may utilize a compost pit to serve as haven for all of your organic trashes and eventually use this as your fertilizer for your backyard garden or trees.

11. Do the traditional way of helping to conserve our environment by virtue of avoiding smoke-belching.

12. Conserve electrical energy and water by employing tips such as regular cleaning of our bulb and fluorescent light in our home, use only appliances when needed, avoiding dripping of water from our faucets, and reporting any case of broken water pipelines to local government.

13. Support any environmental conservation in your community, you may give some donations if this will not bother you to support their cause. You may also join them in their information dissemination drive and campaign as well. You may also do things that can benefit our environment. If you're living in nearby beaches try putting old tires in the sea, this will serve as sanctuary for fishes to lay their eggs and for a place to hide from predators. You may have some vegetation (vegetables, trees or ornamental plants) in your own backyard, for extra oxygen in your area.

14. Support and visit eco-tours near you, these may promote awareness about the importance of ecology to your children, relative and friends.

15. When visiting any tourism site/protected parks please be responsible with your trashes as much as possible adhere to the rules and regulations of the park even if no one is looking at you.

16. Learn how to appreciate nature and her gifts to mankind and support any environmental campaigns that will help nurture and protect the only planet we live in.

This is my fifth entry to the hubchallenge...



Cost To Install Solar Panels

Batteries At The Big End Of Town: Frequency Regulation And Management Of Solar And Wind Power Generation - LG Chemical Co., Ltd. (OTCMKTS:LGCLF)

With growing concerns over the environmental effects of burning fossil fuels and rising energy prices, many people are looking to renewable energy as a clean alternative and a way to cut down on energy costs. Installing solar panels into a home not only will reduce electrical bills, but may also actually help you make money by generating electricity. Although the installation cost can be expensive, the government offers programs and tax credits for "green" home improvement projects like this one. Things You'll Need Solar panel array Chalk Stud finder Solar panel mounts Drill Stainless steel lag bolts Metal flashings Metal rails 3/8" stainless steel bolts Electrical conduit Circuit breaker Installing Solar Panels Determine how big the array on your roof will be and mark off where it will be installed. Use a stud finder to locate the studs in the area where the panels will be installed and mark them off. The attachment points will be spaced in a rectangular grid pattern, 4 to 6 feet apart. Align the mount over the stud where it will be attached and drill a pilot hole. Use stainless steel lag bolts to attach the mounts to the roof, driving them in through the pilot holes you've drilled. Slide the flashings over the mounts, tucking the top edge under the shingle and nailing it to the roof. Attach metal rails to the posts with 3/8" stainless steel bolts. Install the solar panels and connect them so they form an array and also install all the wiring connections. Wiring Run the electrical conduit from the array to the place the inverter will be located, attaching it to the roof. Other People Are Reading How to Calculate Solar Panel Angle The Average Cost of Switching to Solar Energy Run the wiring through the electrical conduit, following the instructions provided by the manufacturer to connect the wires to the solar panels correctly. Take the side of the wiring that's not attached to the array and run it into the inverter and disconnect switches. The inverter converts the DC current that the solar panels produce into the AC current you use in your house. The disconnect switches allow you to turn the system off so that you can safely make repairs. The control equipment should be placed near your electrical box. Install a new circuit breaker in your electrical box and feed the lines leading from the solar array into the electrical box through the new circuit breaker. You might want to hire an electrician for this step if you're not comfortable doing it. Tips & Warnings Ideally, you should install the solar panels while the house is under construction or a new roof is being installed. When you're attaching the mounts to the roof, use a chalk line or laser sight to keep them in a straight line. Related Searches References Ameco Renewzle.com SolarPowerRocks.com Promoted By Zergnet Comments Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus. Resources Solar Panel Installation You May Also Like Solar Roof Panels to Prevent Ice Dams In the winter, melting snow can lead to ice dams. These dangerous, costly packs on your roof can be difficult to remove.... How to Install Solar Panels on a Tile Roof Solar panels can be installed on many roof types. The panels can be tilted up as well as flush-mounted. It is much... Flat Roof Pros & Cons While pitched roofs are used on many houses, a flat roof is a viable option for many homes. As the name implies,...

Pauma Valley

How to Build a Solar Energy System


Solar Panels San Diego

Torrey Highlands Solar Energy Companies

So, what exactly is involved in calculating solar panels cost in Torrey Highlands? When thinking about solar power very few people know the way the cost of solar panel systems is actually measured. Or even, for that matter, do we automatically grasp the connection relating to the cost of solar power and the value of solar power. We all know that gasoline prices are in dollars per gallon. We likewise are all aware of approximately how far we’ll be able to drive after spending 40 bucks for a tank of gas. In contrast to a tank of gas, the value of which can be consumed pretty much instantly, solar panels deliver their value across a period of time.

Cost Of Solar Panels For Home

Torrey Highlands 3 Undervalued Solar Leaders

It is now the high time to do our own share in protecting Earth and her wonderful creatures.

Our planet is indeed gasping for breath right now, our harmful pollution is indeed choking her slowly and continues to strip off her ozone layer. I think it is about time to give our response to this alarming state of the only planet we live in, by doing our own share of protecting her with doing simple things that will surely stir big difference. For if not, we might be harming ourselves in the years ahead as well, for nature has its own destructive ways of getting back at us humans, the signs of earth's displeasure with inappropriate and harmful activities of humans are now seen and felt all across the globe like the global warming, climate change, acid rain, drought, flash floods and other forms of natural catastrophes.

Antarctic glaciers and ice sheets are melting at a fast rate, the populations of bees worldwide are dwindling down, numerous species of flora and fauna all across the world are becoming extinct as years go by, the ecosystem is continuously harmed, polar bears are getting hungry and the list goes on.

Here are some practical and small ways that could help our planet get a sigh of relief. Collective small efforts by those who are genuinely concerned with earth's welfare will inevitably help her by great leap and bounds.

1. Don’t allow your children to free those colorful balloons in mid-air. Teach your children not to release balloons. For balloons that escaped the grasps of your children that will hover the sky and eventually fell into oceans and seas will be mistaken as (irresistible meal) jellyfish by sea turtles. Sea turtles take a lot of years to mature and unfortunately some of them got killed by eating balloon or plastic bags. Sea turtles are part of the delicate cycle and if their population is affected other species of marine creatures are also under threat.

2. Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. Make it a habit to reduce the things we need or we consume. Purchase only things that we only need and eat only what you can. Let us do our share not to be part of the problem or should I say part of the garbage problem. Reuse all the things that can still be repaired/fixed or those things that are still okay.

Recycle things to conserve our resources, collect old newspapers, books, magazines, used papers, bottles (plastic and glass), and any other things that you could sell in junkyards. There is money in garbage and at the same time we’re doing our part in recycling process.

3. Be kind to trees. As much as possible use forests products and timber very well with optimum efficiency. You may use the back of coupons, use pencils until it become as small as possible, and don’t play with matches. Try to get involved in tree planting in your local conservation program. This could be fun as trees can give us added oxygen, shades for people and a refuge to different insects and birds.

4. Broken scientific apparatus like thermometer, barometers, manometers, sphygmanometers, and float valves and other things that have mercury on it should be disposed properly. Avoid throwing this in rivers for mercury is toxic and poisonous not only to the fishes and invertebrates but to the humans as well.

5. Minimize the use of refrigerators, foam blowers, solvents, aerosol spray propellants, fire extinguishers, and chemical reagents for these contains chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that are responsible to the climate change and depletion of our precious ozone layer. Do not burn plastic please this habit is also harmful to our ozone layer.

6. Do not buy exotic and endangered animals. These animals are intended to be in the wild not as mere decorations to your home, pets or playthings.

7. Educate our children, friends and even our local community about the harmful effects of dynamite fishing, illegal logging, animal poaching, over reliance to wood products and hos of other environmental issues.

8. Do not even bother to try eating exotic and endangered animals for they are not intended to be part of human’s diet. Let the other predatory animal do the stalking and eating hehehe you’re not fit to be a lion. One of the most badly hit by human's penchant for delicious foods are the sharks (shark fin soup), sturgeon (sturgeon roes - caviar- are valued for their great taste and one of the most prized eats in the world), snakes, sea turtles and many other animals.

9. Do not patronize things (coats, purse, belt, etc.) that are made up of an endangered animal or animal part (like skin, fur, bones, tusks, antlers, etc.).

10. Be responsible with your garbage, dispose them properly. Also try to use segregation scheme with your trashes, separate those decomposable from those that are not. You may utilize a compost pit to serve as haven for all of your organic trashes and eventually use this as your fertilizer for your backyard garden or trees.

11. Do the traditional way of helping to conserve our environment by virtue of avoiding smoke-belching.

12. Conserve electrical energy and water by employing tips such as regular cleaning of our bulb and fluorescent light in our home, use only appliances when needed, avoiding dripping of water from our faucets, and reporting any case of broken water pipelines to local government.

13. Support any environmental conservation in your community, you may give some donations if this will not bother you to support their cause. You may also join them in their information dissemination drive and campaign as well. You may also do things that can benefit our environment. If you're living in nearby beaches try putting old tires in the sea, this will serve as sanctuary for fishes to lay their eggs and for a place to hide from predators. You may have some vegetation (vegetables, trees or ornamental plants) in your own backyard, for extra oxygen in your area.

14. Support and visit eco-tours near you, these may promote awareness about the importance of ecology to your children, relative and friends.

15. When visiting any tourism site/protected parks please be responsible with your trashes as much as possible adhere to the rules and regulations of the park even if no one is looking at you.

16. Learn how to appreciate nature and her gifts to mankind and support any environmental campaigns that will help nurture and protect the only planet we live in.

This is my fifth entry to the hubchallenge...



Home Solar Panels Cost

Solar Power, Inc: Why This $1 Billion Company Could Fall By More Than 80% - Solar Power, Inc. (OTCMKTS:SOPW)

Solar panels are a source of alternative energy and can be constructed at home and mounted on the roof of a house. Depending on the amount of panels that are used, a significant amount of money can be saved on energy bills by using solar energy. When constructing solar panels, the two main choices for the body of the panel are Plexiglas or tempered glass -- it is important to know the specifications of both types of glass to meet the needs of your solar panels. Advantages of Plexiglas Panels Plexiglas panels are made of acrylic material, which means that they can be cut easily with a band saw. Plexiglas allows about 90 percent of light rays to pass through it to the solar cells. Despite allowing this much light through to the solar cells, Plexiglas protects the solar cells very well from wear, ensuring that they last as long as possible. Advantages of Tempered Glass Panels Tempered glass panels are more durable than Plexiglas -- this is important to consider in residential neighborhoods, as a stray ball can hit a solar panel. A crack in a tempered glass panel will not impede the solar cells from working properly. Tempered glass is also easy to cut -- this makes it easier to fit on panels of all shapes. Disadvantages of Plexiglas Panels Plexiglas has a softer outer surface than tempered glass and can crack or scratch easily, leading to solar cells being blocked from receiving solar rays. Plexiglas does not bend easily, which requires that it be supported on the solar panel -- failure to provide proper support can result in the Plexiglas panel cracking. Disadvantages of Tempered Glass Panels The cost of tempered glass is typically higher than that of Plexiglas (tempered glass can cost up to $150 per sheet as of 2011) and does not allow as much light to penetrate to the solar panels, reducing the efficiency of the cells. Although tempered glass sheets are durable, there exists the risk that they may shatter, which could block the solar cells from receiving light. A sheet of shattered tempered glass will also allow moisture into the panel, which will eventually ruin the solar cells. Related Searches References RPlastics: Plexiglas Primer Energy Matters: Solar Panel -- Plate vs. Tempered Glass Promoted By Zergnet Comments Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus. You May Also Like Glass Vs. Plexiglass In general, glass is cheaper to purchase than plexiglass, is more scratch resistant and more easily recycled. Plexiglass, on the other hand,... Acrylic Vs. Plexi Glass Acrylic and Plexiglass are often used interchangeably in product literature concerning sheet plastic. While Plexiglass is made from acrylic, there are subtle... Types of Glass Solar Panels Solar panels come in many forms and are made from multiple components. The glass components of solar collectors vary in form and...

Torrey Highlands

Solar Power, Inc: Why This $1 Billion Company Could Fall By More Than 80% - Solar Power, Inc. (OTCMKTS:SOPW)


Solar Panels San Diego

Bonsall Solar Power

So, what exactly is involved in calculating solar panels cost in Bonsall? When thinking about solar power very few people know the way the cost of solar panel systems is actually measured. Or even, for that matter, do we automatically grasp the connection relating to the cost of solar power and the value of solar power. We all know that gasoline prices are in dollars per gallon. We likewise are all aware of approximately how far we’ll be able to drive after spending 40 bucks for a tank of gas. In contrast to a tank of gas, the value of which can be consumed pretty much instantly, solar panels deliver their value across a period of time.

Average Cost Of Solar Panels

Bonsall 3 Undervalued Solar Leaders

Science Fair Projects for Kids and High School Students

These 12 sites have hundreds of science fair projects, experiments, and advice to help you create the best science fair project you can. They suggest easy projects for kids and more challenging award-winning science fair projects for high school students. I've used many of them with my daughter and students.

Some of the sites provide ideas. Some give you step-by-step instructions for conducting experiments. Some provide kids advice on creating projects for science fairs. And some have forums where kids can get help when they're stuck. Many of these websites have videos to illustrate their experiments.

Note: Some of these sites have forums, which require registration with an email address. Children under age 13 need parent approval to register and submit questions to these forums.

#1 Science Buddies

Strength: Detailed science projects and advice for kids

I most often recommend Science Buddies to students and parents starting work on a science fair project. This is an award-winning site was created by the Kenneth Lafferty Hess Family Charitable Foundation, and has a wealth of resources.

First is the Project Ideas section where you can browse a list of projects by area of study. Or try the Topic Selection Wizard. You answer a series of questions about your science interests and grade level, then you get a list of projects best suited to your situation.

The projects are very detailed. Each includes the background, questions to consider, a list of required supplies and equipment, and step-by-step instructions for the experimental procedure.

The next helpful resource is an extensive Science Fair Project Guide. Here you'll learn more about how to use the scientific method to build your project, how to write your report, and how to display your work. There is also advice on safety procedures, selecting supplies, and techniques.

Finally, you can go to the Ask an Expert Forum if you need more assistance. Look to see if another student has asked a similar question that answers yours. If you've been unable to resolve your problem with the help of a teacher or parent, this group of volunteer scientists will do their best to help you.

The Science Buddies site is easy to navigate. And and the extent of their resources is incomparable.

#2 Cool Science Projects

Strength: Tips for creating award-winning science fair projects

The folks at Cool-Science-Projects.com will walk you through all the steps of creating a science project. You'll find advice and resources for simpler projects for a homework assignment, as well as advice on creating show-stopper competition projects.

There are lots of ideas here by grade level. A few of the ideas have step-by-step instructions for carrying them out. The site's biggest strength is the section it devotes to advice on creating a winning science fair project.

#3 Steve Spangler's Science Experiments

Strength: Entertaining videos of experiments to spark you own project ideas

Steve Spangler's Science Experiments is a particularly useful website for science teachers and homeschool parents. Steve is a teacher's teacher who is televised weekly in Denver and who has appeared on nationally televised shows, demonstrating experiments and explaining the science behind them. He also conducts teacher training seminars throughout the country.

On this site, you can access his collection of science experiments, recipes and projects. His library of projects is accompanied by videos of how to use materials and equipment to conduct experiments. He also has an online store of supplies and equipment.

Steve's delight in science experiments is entertaining, and he'll get you and your kids excited about their experiments too!

#4 Reeko's Mad Scientist Lab

Strength: Advice for creating a successful science fair project

Reeko is passionate about science. His passion is contagious at Reeko's Mad Scientist Lab. Reeko takes a humorous and engaging approach to getting kids interested in science.

Reeko's focus is science experiments. He does not provide guidance for school science projects. But his experiments are a breeding ground for science project ideas.

This award-winning site has games, puzzles and quizzes. And there is a new forum where you can ask a question if you're having problems with your experiment or science in general.

#5 DragonflyTV

Videos of experiments with accompanying variation ideas for home experiments

DragonflyTV delves into experiments conducted by kids. The folks at PBS Kids Go! offer up plenty of videos of kids conducting experiments.

Then they provide ideas of variations your children can pick from for their own experiments. Or kids can give the Super Science Spinner a whirl until they find an idea they like. DragonflyTV also offers their 12 steps to science fair success.

#6 The Science Club

Strength: Detailed instructions, videos and illustrations of projects

Science Fair Ideas Exchange provides dozens of ideas for projects and experiments. If you need more than written explanations and illustrations, look here. The site is hosted by Bill Beaty of The Science Club.

Many projects are accompanied by a video that shows the key steps in creating your experiment or device. Projects are categorized as simple, medium and advanced.

Some of the video-taped experiments are hazardous, and should be supervised by an adult or conducted only by science teachers.

The Make It Solar Science Fair Information provides detailed information on carrying out a project using the scientific method and steps illustrated here. For teachers who have a website, Make It Solar provides the code to put the illustration at the right into your site with a link to its science fair info.

You'll also find planning guides, research tips, illustrations of display layouts. The site's focus is solar energy, so they furnish details on how to create several solar energy science projects.

#8 MadSci Network

Strength: Answers to your science experiment and project questions

Created by MadSci Network & Third Sector New England, MadSci Network is a great place to get answers to your science questions. Their extensive questions and answers archive can help you as you build your project.

The MadSci Library provides links to other resources by topic area. Look for answers to common science fair questions at the MadSci FAQ page.

If you can't find an answer in their archives of past questions, submit your own question.

#9 ZOOMsci

Strength: Kids' comments on how the experiments worked for them

ZOOMsci from by PBS Kids & WGBH has dozens of science activities for children in grades K-8. The emphasis is on having fun with science experiments, as opposed to a rigorous scientific method.

Pick an activity, carry it out, then record your observations and comments on the ZOOMsci site. Personally identifiable information is not collected here.

#10 Scientific Methods at pppst.com

Strength: Lessons to help kids learn the scientific method

Teachers and homeschool parents can make use of the resources for elementary and middle school students at Scientific Methods at pppst.com. There are presentations to use when teaching the scientific method, as well as printable materials.

For kids, there are links numerous resources to help them learn and remember the steps contained in the scientific method.

One of Mr. Donn's greatest strengths is that his material is readable at the upper elementary age level. So adults don't have to do a lot of interpretation.

#11 Hands-on Activities

Strength: Detailed instructions for experiments

At Exploratorium's Hands-on Activities page, you'll find lots of ideas for experiments and science projects. Activities are grouped by topic such as food, living things, or sports science.

Each activity provides a list of needed materials and step-by-step instructions. Illustrations and photos accompany the instructions. A few even have videos.

Note that some of the activities are not true "activities" but rather information on how something, like cycling, works.

If you are making a model of the solar system to scale, you have to take a look at the Build a Solar System activity. There is a scale calculator that uses the diameter of the sun you plan to create to calculate the dimensions for all of the planets and orbit radius of each planet.

#12 Step-by-Step Science Fair Success

Strength: Advice for teachers and schools on organizing a successful science fair

Step-by-Step Science Fair Success is a guide for teachers and schools to use in planning a science fair. Lily Ning, a middle school teacher, discusses:

  • Preplanning, sending out letters, and rules for group projects
  • Creating guidelines, submission categories, and scientific methodology to be used
  • Student tasks in proposing, planning, carrying out, and displaying project results
  • Assessment using a rubric and grading sheets for the notebook, paper, and display
  • Judging rubric

Directory of Science Project Websites

from LearningReviews.com

There are more than 30 science fair project and experiment websites listed in LearningReviews Directory of Science Project Websites. Some of the sites have simple experiments for kids to carry out at home. Others have more sophisticated projects for high school students and science fairs. Kids, parents and teachers write reviews about the sites they like best.

Other Science categories on the site help you to learn more about chemistry, astronomy, biology, etc., as you prepare for your science project.

Get Ready for Your Science Fair with Janice VanCleave

Janice VanCleave is a teacher, scientist and author of award-winning science books for kids. This virtual field trip is hosted on Meet Me at the Corner.org, where you can find more science fair project ideas.

Average Cost Of Solar Panels

How to Build a Solar Energy System

Solar Panel image by kuhar from Fotolia.com Although it comes with a steep price tag, building your own solar energy system comes with many benefits. Depending on how much installation you do yourself, your payback period can be dramatically reduced. Building your own system requires advanced knowledge of home-improvement techniques, including electrical, circuitry and roofing. This project may take four to five full days of work, depending on how large of a system you are installing. Things You'll Need Pen Paper Solar panel kit Mounts Silicone with caulking gun Power drill Heat gun Charge controller Deep cycle batteries Insulated electrical wire AC inverter Wire strippers Soldering iron Adhesive-lined heat shrink tubing Electrical tape Write down on a sheet of paper the appliances that you are desiring to operate with solar power. Write out the total amp rating of each appliance as well as the number of hours that each appliance will operate throughout the day. Multiply the the amp rating for each appliance by the number of hours you plan to operate it. This number will indicate the total amp hours that you need to provide through your solar power system. Generally, the total amp hours from your appliances should equal no more than 50 percent of the total capacity of your battery bank. For example, if you plan to use your appliances for 200 amp hours on a daily basis, your battery bank should a charge up to 400 amp hours. This will help to determine the number of batteries that you need, however, the amperage on deep cycle batteries vary depending on which product you purchase for your system. Mount the solar panels on the south-facing portion of your roof-top by using a power drill and the mounting kits provided with the solar panels. Solar panels should be angled so that they match the latitude of your location, plus or minus 15 degrees depending on seasonal adjustments for the height of the sun. For example, if you live at a location where the latitudinal coordinate is 30 degrees, the panels should be mounted 30 degrees from horizontal. If your kit includes the ability to change the angle at which the solar panels are mounted, you should add an additional 15 degrees during summer months and subtract 15 degrees in the winter, when the sun's height is lower in the sky for a shorter duration of time. Solder 12 gauge electrical wiring to the two output terminals found on the side of the solar panel. The black 12 gauge wire should continue from the positive terminal of the solar panel and the white wire should connect with the negative terminal. Use the green wire to connect to the solar panel's frame as a way to ground the wire. Expose at least one inch of the copper wire by stripping the sheath of the two wires you are joining together. Twist the two wires being joined together into an "X," wrapping the first wire's end along the length of the second wire until the first wire's end is completely wrapped around the second wire. Repeat the same process for the second wire. Heat the joint by holding the soldering iron beneath the wire joint. Apply the soldering iron and solder to the top part of the joint, adding more of the soldering wire until the joint is completely covered with solder and the exposed wires are no longer visible. Wrap adhesive-lined heat shrink tubing around the newly soldered joint, heating it tubing with a heat gun until it covers the solder. Connect the ends of the extended wiring coming from the solar panels to a charge controller, which has screw-on connections for input wires. The charge controller prevents the deep-cycle batteries from becoming overloaded, thus reducing the maintenance and cost of your solar power system. The charge controller should also be stored adjacent to the batteries. Wire the deep-cycle batteries together so that they form a circuit by using either a parallel or series pattern. Use 8-gauge wire to connect the batteries. To connect the batteries into a series circuit, which doubles the voltage of the system, wire the negative terminal of one battery to the positive terminal of its adjacent battery. Continue this pattern until all terminals are connected. To connect the batteries into a parallel circuit (which doubles the amperage of the system) connect the positive terminal of one battery to the positive terminal of its adjacent battery. Do the same for the negative terminals on your deep-cycle batteries as well. Install the input wires from the AC inverter, which are equipped with screw-on joints to mate with the battery terminals. The inverter will change the Direct Current from the batteries to Alternating Current, which is a usable form of electricity that home appliances utilize. Connect the ends output cables of the charge controller to the deep-cycle battery circuit. The charge controller's output cables, black for negative and red for positive, also screw onto the battery terminals with a screwdriver. Other People Are Reading How to Get 48V out of a 12V Solar System How to Self-Install Solar Electric Plug your appliances into the outlets of your AC inverter and turn the inverter on. Tips & Warnings Currently, the 3-stage charge controller is the industry standard, however, using a Maximum Power Point Tracking controller will provide greater efficiency, especially if you are installing a larger system. Although a solar system is quite complicated to build, thinking of it in terms of "layers" may be helpful. The sun powers the solar cells, which are connected to a charge controller, which connect to the batteries, which connect to an inverter. Related Searches References Solar 4 Power: Solar Power Don Rowe: Power Inverter FAQ Green Living Tips: Solar Power Basics Photo Credit Solar Panel image by kuhar from Fotolia.com Promoted By Zergnet Comments Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus. Resources Aaron Cake: Soldering Electronics Solar 4 Power: Batteries Free Sunpower: FAQ You May Also Like How to Build Solar Panels for Electricity With energy rates on the rise, building your own solar panel is an economical, smart, and rewarding way to produce your own... How to Understand & Install Your Own Solar Electric System The most visible components of a photovoltaic (PV) energy-generation system are the solar panels. You usually don't see the devices that convert... How to Build Your Own Solar Energy You can harness the energy of the sun to use at home through solar panels. Commercially available solar panels are expensive, and... 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How to Protect Lawn Decorations from Theft


Solar Panels San Diego

Grantville Solar Panels

So, what exactly is involved in calculating solar panels cost in Grantville? When thinking about solar power very few people know the way the cost of solar panel systems is actually measured. Or even, for that matter, do we automatically grasp the connection relating to the cost of solar power and the value of solar power. We all know that gasoline prices are in dollars per gallon. We likewise are all aware of approximately how far we’ll be able to drive after spending 40 bucks for a tank of gas. In contrast to a tank of gas, the value of which can be consumed pretty much instantly, solar panels deliver their value across a period of time.

Solar Heater For Pool

Grantville 3 Undervalued Solar Leaders

Many homeowners take great pride in caring for their lawns. Many people spend lots of time planting various types of colorful plants. Others spend a significant amount of money on decorations to dress up their lawns. If you enjoy decorating your lawn, whether for different seasons or just the holidays, you may become a target for thieves. Fortunately, there are steps you can take to protect your lawn decorations from theft. Promoted by Things You'll Need Rope Outdoor lights (electrical or solar) Home security signs Choose heavy items for lawn decorations. For example, stone statues, rocks and wrought iron furniture will make it difficult for thieves to make a quick getaway with these types of decorations. Use thick rope to tightly tie down any lightweight holiday decorations on display in your yard. This may deter or at least slow down any thieves who attempt to run away with your inflatable Santa Claus. Install outdoor lights around your house. Place lights around walkways and driveways. Install a motion detector that will turn the lights on if someone enters the yard. This will surprise intruders and may cause them to flee. Choose outdoor lighting that can also serve as accent lighting for decorative purposes. Place home security signs around the outside of your house. Position your security signs near your outdoor lighting. This combination will likely discourage thieves from choosing to steal ornaments from your property because of the fear of a more sophisticated security system around the corner. Place various types of prickly plants around your yard ornaments. Planting a cactus or sticker bushes around your decorations will provide a natural deterrent against thieves. Invest in electric fencing around your decorations. Electric fencing will give the thieves a nice little shock when they try to steal your property. Adopt a dog. Adopt a homeless dog form your local animal shelter. Protect your lawn decorations by training a great guard dog. Dogs not only make loving companions, they will protect their owners and home. Thieves will be less likely to approach a home that has a barking dog. Join or start a neighborhood watch group. Create a neighborhood watch team to serve as extra "eyes and ears" against thieves who might like to steal your yard ornaments. Make sure all members of your group are aware of any thefts in your neighborhood and what actions to take if they encounter a robbery in the future. Related Searches Promoted By Zergnet Comments Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus. You May Also Like Protecting Outdoor Plants from Frost Protecting tender plants from temperatures near or below freezing, 32 degrees Fahrenheit, extends production in vegetable gardens and may allow the plants... How to Build a Wood Shed for My Lawn Mower A shed is an important piece for any homeowner to store outside equipment and supplies. Many sheds can be bought premade, but... How to Secure Lawn Decorations From Being Stolen Lawn decorations can turn a ho-hum yard into an artistic wonderland, for the holidays or every day. But the decor is also... How to Make Wooden Outdoor Christmas Decorations If your annual holiday celebration begins when store shelves are stocked with new outdoor ornaments—because last year’s batch of pricey, flimsy imports... How do I Turn Outdoor Christmas Lights Into Solar? Using solar power to operate your outdoor Christmas lights is an environmentally friendly and money saving project. By converting your current Christmas... How to Make a Life-Size Santa Claus Doll Create a life-size Santa doll as a Christmas decoration for your front hall or as part of a more intricate Christmas display.... Solar Installation Cost

How to Build a Solar Energy System

Solar Power, Inc. (OTCQB:SOPW): Why this $1 Billion Company Could Fall By More Than 80%

When a stock rises from $.25 a share to close to $3.00 a share in a little over 3 months, it's bound to get your attention. Naturally, I became curious as to the catalyst that is driving this move and most importantly, is the share price sustainable. After looking into the company further it became very apparent that the company is significantly over valued with a market cap of $1 billion. With the stock price at $2.40 per share, investors could potentially lose 80% of their investment (or more).

Share Structure

The company currently reports having 334 million shares outstanding within their most recent 10-Q filing. Buried within the filings are a number of toxic debt conversions that could adversely affect the company's share price in the future.

In the second quarter of 2014, the company increased the amount of authorized shares from 250,000,000 to 1,000,000 shares. Around the same time of the increase in authorized shares, the company issued 40,625,000 shares of common stock to a non-U.S. investor at a price of $.16 a share (Source: 10-Q Filing)

In July 2014 the Company issued a large number of shares via a convertible bond and a private placement at a deep discount. 68,750,000 shares of common stock were issued at $.16 per share along with another 26,562,500 shares of common stock at $.16 per share.

Since the period ending June 30, the company entered into yet another agreement to sell 92,620,000 shares of common stock at a price of $.27 per share. This private placement was concluded on September 17 and increased the number of outstanding shares to a total of 426,771,956 shares.

In total, the company has issued 135,937,500 shares of common stock since May at a price of $.16 per share along with another 92,620,000 shares at a price of $.27 per share. During this same time, the share price has increased from $.20 per share to $2.40 per share, and increase of over 1000%. Since the 92 million private placement took place after the period ending on June 30, 2014, the actual number of outstanding shares is over 425 million shares. At a closing price of $2.40, this puts the current market cap of Solar Power, Inc. over $1,000,000,000.

Bankruptcy

LDK Solar Co. owns 42.4% of the Company's outstanding shares as of August 19, 2014. On October 21, LDK Solar Co. filed for bankruptcy. Despite the large number of positive press releases produced by the company, they have failed to disclose this material fact.

In addition to the bankruptcy of the Company's parent company and majority shareholder, the Company also has accounts payable due to LDK Solar Co. of $38.7 million. The Company admits within their filings that should LDK Solar demand payment (which is likely due to their bankruptcy filing), that they do not have the ability to make payment without additional sources of financing. With the recent increase in authorized shares, it can be reasonably concluded that Solar Power Inc. will need to dilute shareholders even further in the future.

(Source: 10-Q Filing)

Contact Information

Solar Power Inc. lists their phone number at otcmarkets.com as well as their own website at solarpowerinc.com. The two phone numbers listed are 916-770-8100 and 800-548-8767. Both of these phone numbers will not connect you to the company and will instead put you into a voicemail for a "Susan Carter." Susan Carter appears to have no affiliation with the company whatsoever.

Conclusion

With 426 million shares outstanding, the current market cap of Solar Power, Inc. is over $1 Billion and the company does not even maintain a working phone number. For this reason, along with the many other red flags that exist, we urge investors to take profits immediately before it's too late. Also, with the number of red flags that exist along with the billion dollar market cap of the company, it is very likely regulators will take notice which will then put the stock at a serious risk of a halt.

Disclosure: The author has no positions in any stocks mentioned, and no plans to initiate any positions within the next 72 hours.

The author wrote this article themselves, and it expresses their own opinions. The author is not receiving compensation for it (other than from Seeking Alpha). The author has no business relationship with any company whose stock is mentioned in this article.

Editor's Note: This article discusses one or more securities that do not trade on a major U.S. exchange. Please be aware of the risks associated with these stocks.

Grantville

Best Science Fair Project Websites for Kids


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Mission Viejo Solar Installation

So, what exactly is involved in calculating solar panels cost in Mission Viejo? When thinking about solar power very few people know the way the cost of solar panel systems is actually measured. Or even, for that matter, do we automatically grasp the connection relating to the cost of solar power and the value of solar power. We all know that gasoline prices are in dollars per gallon. We likewise are all aware of approximately how far we’ll be able to drive after spending 40 bucks for a tank of gas. In contrast to a tank of gas, the value of which can be consumed pretty much instantly, solar panels deliver their value across a period of time.

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Science Fair Projects for Kids and High School Students

These 12 sites have hundreds of science fair projects, experiments, and advice to help you create the best science fair project you can. They suggest easy projects for kids and more challenging award-winning science fair projects for high school students. I've used many of them with my daughter and students.

Some of the sites provide ideas. Some give you step-by-step instructions for conducting experiments. Some provide kids advice on creating projects for science fairs. And some have forums where kids can get help when they're stuck. Many of these websites have videos to illustrate their experiments.

Note: Some of these sites have forums, which require registration with an email address. Children under age 13 need parent approval to register and submit questions to these forums.

#1 Science Buddies

Strength: Detailed science projects and advice for kids

I most often recommend Science Buddies to students and parents starting work on a science fair project. This is an award-winning site was created by the Kenneth Lafferty Hess Family Charitable Foundation, and has a wealth of resources.

First is the Project Ideas section where you can browse a list of projects by area of study. Or try the Topic Selection Wizard. You answer a series of questions about your science interests and grade level, then you get a list of projects best suited to your situation.

The projects are very detailed. Each includes the background, questions to consider, a list of required supplies and equipment, and step-by-step instructions for the experimental procedure.

The next helpful resource is an extensive Science Fair Project Guide. Here you'll learn more about how to use the scientific method to build your project, how to write your report, and how to display your work. There is also advice on safety procedures, selecting supplies, and techniques.

Finally, you can go to the Ask an Expert Forum if you need more assistance. Look to see if another student has asked a similar question that answers yours. If you've been unable to resolve your problem with the help of a teacher or parent, this group of volunteer scientists will do their best to help you.

The Science Buddies site is easy to navigate. And and the extent of their resources is incomparable.

#2 Cool Science Projects

Strength: Tips for creating award-winning science fair projects

The folks at Cool-Science-Projects.com will walk you through all the steps of creating a science project. You'll find advice and resources for simpler projects for a homework assignment, as well as advice on creating show-stopper competition projects.

There are lots of ideas here by grade level. A few of the ideas have step-by-step instructions for carrying them out. The site's biggest strength is the section it devotes to advice on creating a winning science fair project.

#3 Steve Spangler's Science Experiments

Strength: Entertaining videos of experiments to spark you own project ideas

Steve Spangler's Science Experiments is a particularly useful website for science teachers and homeschool parents. Steve is a teacher's teacher who is televised weekly in Denver and who has appeared on nationally televised shows, demonstrating experiments and explaining the science behind them. He also conducts teacher training seminars throughout the country.

On this site, you can access his collection of science experiments, recipes and projects. His library of projects is accompanied by videos of how to use materials and equipment to conduct experiments. He also has an online store of supplies and equipment.

Steve's delight in science experiments is entertaining, and he'll get you and your kids excited about their experiments too!

#4 Reeko's Mad Scientist Lab

Strength: Advice for creating a successful science fair project

Reeko is passionate about science. His passion is contagious at Reeko's Mad Scientist Lab. Reeko takes a humorous and engaging approach to getting kids interested in science.

Reeko's focus is science experiments. He does not provide guidance for school science projects. But his experiments are a breeding ground for science project ideas.

This award-winning site has games, puzzles and quizzes. And there is a new forum where you can ask a question if you're having problems with your experiment or science in general.

#5 DragonflyTV

Videos of experiments with accompanying variation ideas for home experiments

DragonflyTV delves into experiments conducted by kids. The folks at PBS Kids Go! offer up plenty of videos of kids conducting experiments.

Then they provide ideas of variations your children can pick from for their own experiments. Or kids can give the Super Science Spinner a whirl until they find an idea they like. DragonflyTV also offers their 12 steps to science fair success.

#6 The Science Club

Strength: Detailed instructions, videos and illustrations of projects

Science Fair Ideas Exchange provides dozens of ideas for projects and experiments. If you need more than written explanations and illustrations, look here. The site is hosted by Bill Beaty of The Science Club.

Many projects are accompanied by a video that shows the key steps in creating your experiment or device. Projects are categorized as simple, medium and advanced.

Some of the video-taped experiments are hazardous, and should be supervised by an adult or conducted only by science teachers.

The Make It Solar Science Fair Information provides detailed information on carrying out a project using the scientific method and steps illustrated here. For teachers who have a website, Make It Solar provides the code to put the illustration at the right into your site with a link to its science fair info.

You'll also find planning guides, research tips, illustrations of display layouts. The site's focus is solar energy, so they furnish details on how to create several solar energy science projects.

#8 MadSci Network

Strength: Answers to your science experiment and project questions

Created by MadSci Network & Third Sector New England, MadSci Network is a great place to get answers to your science questions. Their extensive questions and answers archive can help you as you build your project.

The MadSci Library provides links to other resources by topic area. Look for answers to common science fair questions at the MadSci FAQ page.

If you can't find an answer in their archives of past questions, submit your own question.

#9 ZOOMsci

Strength: Kids' comments on how the experiments worked for them

ZOOMsci from by PBS Kids & WGBH has dozens of science activities for children in grades K-8. The emphasis is on having fun with science experiments, as opposed to a rigorous scientific method.

Pick an activity, carry it out, then record your observations and comments on the ZOOMsci site. Personally identifiable information is not collected here.

#10 Scientific Methods at pppst.com

Strength: Lessons to help kids learn the scientific method

Teachers and homeschool parents can make use of the resources for elementary and middle school students at Scientific Methods at pppst.com. There are presentations to use when teaching the scientific method, as well as printable materials.

For kids, there are links numerous resources to help them learn and remember the steps contained in the scientific method.

One of Mr. Donn's greatest strengths is that his material is readable at the upper elementary age level. So adults don't have to do a lot of interpretation.

#11 Hands-on Activities

Strength: Detailed instructions for experiments

At Exploratorium's Hands-on Activities page, you'll find lots of ideas for experiments and science projects. Activities are grouped by topic such as food, living things, or sports science.

Each activity provides a list of needed materials and step-by-step instructions. Illustrations and photos accompany the instructions. A few even have videos.

Note that some of the activities are not true "activities" but rather information on how something, like cycling, works.

If you are making a model of the solar system to scale, you have to take a look at the Build a Solar System activity. There is a scale calculator that uses the diameter of the sun you plan to create to calculate the dimensions for all of the planets and orbit radius of each planet.

#12 Step-by-Step Science Fair Success

Strength: Advice for teachers and schools on organizing a successful science fair

Step-by-Step Science Fair Success is a guide for teachers and schools to use in planning a science fair. Lily Ning, a middle school teacher, discusses:

  • Preplanning, sending out letters, and rules for group projects
  • Creating guidelines, submission categories, and scientific methodology to be used
  • Student tasks in proposing, planning, carrying out, and displaying project results
  • Assessment using a rubric and grading sheets for the notebook, paper, and display
  • Judging rubric

Directory of Science Project Websites

from LearningReviews.com

There are more than 30 science fair project and experiment websites listed in LearningReviews Directory of Science Project Websites. Some of the sites have simple experiments for kids to carry out at home. Others have more sophisticated projects for high school students and science fairs. Kids, parents and teachers write reviews about the sites they like best.

Other Science categories on the site help you to learn more about chemistry, astronomy, biology, etc., as you prepare for your science project.

Get Ready for Your Science Fair with Janice VanCleave

Janice VanCleave is a teacher, scientist and author of award-winning science books for kids. This virtual field trip is hosted on Meet Me at the Corner.org, where you can find more science fair project ideas.

Solar Energy Pros And Cons

Detailed Instruction on How to Make Homemade Solar Panels

SunPower Corporation (NASDAQ:SPWR) is a global solar energy solutions provider. It operates in the specialized semiconductor industry and was incorporated in 1985. It is headquartered in San Jose, California and has offices in North America, Europe, Africa and Asia. The company's operating activities include designing, manufacturing and supplying solar panels and solar systems to a wide range of clients. SunPower's customers range from residential to utility customers, including businesses and the government. The company also offers different products related to solar systems that include inverters and control chargers. SunPower Corporation reports its revenues based on geographical segmentation. The company generates about 70% of its revenue from America, 20% from EMEA (Europe) and 10% from APAC (Asia Pacific). The revenues from Europe and Asia have been decreasing over the years partly because of the growing American demand and partly because of the recent economic conditions of Europe. NRG Solar is a significant customer of the company, being responsible for 35% of the revenue generated from America or in aggregate terms 24.5% of the entire revenue. SunPower is backed by Total S. A., the fifth largest publicly-traded energy company in the world. Total has a controlling interest in the company and holds around 66% shares of SunPower.

Market Performance

SunPower Corporation is listed on NASDAQ and is currently trading around $30. 2013 proved to be a good year for the company as far as market performance is concerned. Shares of the company appreciated consistently during the year. In the first week of January, shares were trading at around $6 but now they are touching $30. The solar industry has been facing difficulty in the past two years but now it seems that the market is regaining confidence in the solar industry.

EPS of the company also improved during 2013 which caused the share price to increase. Revenues have also been improving over time and SunPower has posted a CAGR (compound annual growth rate) of 4.95% since December 2011. These growing financial figures were responsible for the positive trend of the share price.

Industry Profile

It appears that the solar industry is starting to recover. The recent years have been rough, especially for American solar businesses because of the dumping exercises carried out by China. The subsidizing of solar companies by the government of China enabled them to sell below their production costs. This forced the American companies to cut prices and suffer losses. Oversupply in the industry was also a major factor in the reduction of prices and diminished earnings. The sales of Chinese solar firms in Europe are capped now due to limitations imposed by the European Union. Once the US and Europe have settled the Chinese solar panel issue, profits in the industry will begin to grow. Furthermore, China has banned the construction of any further solar panel factories. All these developments enhanced the investor's confidence in the solar industry which in turn is reflected in the market performance of the American solar companies. "We're at a point now where demand starts to be driven by cold, hard economics rather than by subsidies and that is a game changer," says Jason Channell of Citigroup.

The solar industry is poised for future growth. According to IEA, renewable electricity will surpass output from natural gas and double the generation from nuclear plants by 2016; becoming the second most important source of energy after coal. It is worth noting that the growth of renewable energy has always been underestimated in projections. For instance, in 2003, IEA predicted that non-hydro renewable energy would represent 4% of the global generation by 2030 but the industry reached that figure in 2003. According to BNEF, renewable energy will account for around 69-74% of new capacity added by 2030. Estimates by HIS predict the global PV (photovoltaic) market to grow by 17% in 2014. All of this points toward the fact that the solar industry will grow in the future.

BNEF also projects a 20% increase in PV installations by 2017. The emerging markets are USA, China and Japan, accounting for 52% of the solar demand in 2013 compared to 13% in 2008. Overall, the industry is set for growth but the question is, on whose expense? China and the US are the two main competitors in this industry. The relative strategies and actions of their governments could affect the companies based in both countries.

Global Production Leader

China is the largest supplier of PV modules. It plans to add 10 GW of solar capacity to the system each year until 2015, aiming for 35GW by 2015. The current capacity is 5GW. Chinese companies like Trina Solar, Yingli Solar and Hanergy have low production costs and are offered subsidies by the government. Therefore, they manage to compete on very low costs, rendering the US based suppliers unprofitable.

The excess production and oversupply of solar panels by Chinese manufacturers reduced the price margins in the industry. This oversupply has been adversely affecting the global solar industry for the past few years. The capping of Chinese solar panels by the EU and the restriction of the Chinese government on the establishment of new solar panel installations has helped in improving the conditions of the industry globally. This, however, presents a problem for the American solar companies because the Chinese suppliers are likely to converge upon the attractive US market. This development could pose a serious hindrance to the growth of US based companies. China still produces the cheapest cells and the efficiency of the cells is also competitive. American companies need to find a way to produce cost effective cells to counter China's competitive advantage. To encourage competition, The U.S. Commerce Department set anti-dumping duties ranging from 18.32% to 249.96% on solar-energy cells imported from China in 2012. This provides a level playing field as far as the American market is concerned. In Europe, the market is equally competitive for both US and Chinese firms because China's sales have been capped. In Asia, as expected, Chinese companies have a clear advantage over their American counterparts.

Catalysts

Residential Leasing Program

SunPower's leasing program is a competitive advantage for the company, as it allows the consumers to install their energy systems without paying all charges upfront. Consumers can save up to 10% or 15% on their electricity bill and be eco-friendly at the same time. SunPower is trying to bridge the gap further by lowering the costs of the system and improving the efficiency. It is aiming to enhance efficiency by 10% and reduce panel costs by 35% in 2015. The residential lease program has attracted 16,200 customers since 2012. "Our residential lease business remains strong, with demand outstripping our financial capacity in the first quarter," said Tom Werner, SunPower's CEO, during a call with analysts to discuss quarterly earnings. The company has been fuelling its finance requirements from Citi, Credit Suisse and recently from US Bancorp. These leases are a competitive advantage for SunPower because they help in reducing the overall energy costs of the consumer.

Differentiated Products

Maxeon cells that are being manufactured by SunPower are the most efficient cells to date. They are 24% efficient. Provided the company manages to reduce the production cost of the cell, they would be every one's first choice.

SunPower's Oasis C7 is a solar photovoltaic tracking system that concentrates the sun's power seven times to achieve the lowest levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for utility-scale solar power plants.

The leading technologies offered by SunPower are its differentiated strength and can help the company to grow.

Research and Development

SunPower is involved in research with King Abdullah University and the French Laboratory of Interfaces of Physics and Thin Films. Total S. A. is also working in solar R&D which could also benefit SunPower. Total is working in collaboration with:

LAAS: (Laboratory for Systems Analysis and Architecture - Toulouse, France) to enhance the efficiency of photovoltaic modules using a systemic approach.

IMEC: (Interuniversity Micro Electronics Center - Louvain, Belgium) to decrease the amount of silicon needed for cells and improve their efficiency

LPICM: (Interface and Thin Film Physics Laboratory - Saclay, France), a joint research facility of the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) and the Ecole Polytechnique's engineering school with a combined team working on crystalline silicon thin film technology.

SunPower's exposure to extensive R&D is reflected in its technologically advanced products.

Valuation

P/E ratio of the company stands at 26.8x and PEG ratio at 0.76x. This indicates that the company's growth would be higher than what market is paying for a dollar of earnings. In simple terms, the market perception is not in line with future growth and we can say that the price is not perfectly correlated to the anticipated growth. Industry growth estimates are 17.09% but the street expects SunPower to grow by a staggering 30%.

With growth estimated at 30% for the next 5 years the multiplier to value the company should be higher than its P/E. That is why we are taking a relatively higher multiplier of 35x.

The mean price target is $35.7, using an average multiplier of 30x which is also above the current price. However, we will use a higher multiplier of 35x and a target price of $42. These estimates give us a 25% upside on SunPower.

Conclusion

SunPower Corp. is well-positioned in the solar industry. It has highly advanced and differentiated products, which, despite their high costs are capable of competing with the low cost and less efficient solar modules. With its intense exposure to R&D, we believe that the company will be able to compete on the cost basis in the near future. It has the potential to become the leader in the solar industry. With the anti-dumping legislation enacted in the US, cap on China's sales in the EU and plans to initiate global leasing, SunPower has an opportunity to penetrate these markets. The top quality cells, Maxeon, enable the company to compete with other American counterparts like First Solar. As far as Asia is concerned, the market will continue to be influenced by China until the solar giants of America can develop a cost effective solution.

Overall, the future of SunPower Corp. is bright whether fueled by their differentiated technology or by the backing of Total S A. The target price of the company indicates further price growth. So, our call on the shares of SPWR is a BUY.

Disclosure: I have no positions in any stocks mentioned, and no plans to initiate any positions within the next 72 hours. I wrote this article myself, and it expresses my own opinions. I am not receiving compensation for it (other than from Seeking Alpha). I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is mentioned in this article.

Mission Viejo

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Solar Panels San Diego

Rancho Santa Fe Solar Questions

So, what exactly is involved in calculating solar panels cost in Rancho Santa Fe? When thinking about solar power very few people know the way the cost of solar panel systems is actually measured. Or even, for that matter, do we automatically grasp the connection relating to the cost of solar power and the value of solar power. We all know that gasoline prices are in dollars per gallon. We likewise are all aware of approximately how far we’ll be able to drive after spending 40 bucks for a tank of gas. In contrast to a tank of gas, the value of which can be consumed pretty much instantly, solar panels deliver their value across a period of time.

Solar System For Home

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Caption: Kokam 24-megawatt Energy Storage System (NYSE:ESS), used by South Korea's largest utility, Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO): world's largest Lithium NMC ESS for frequency regulation

Sometimes technology creeps up on you before you realize what is happening. Then something happens to get your attention and you realize that things are changing fast. And so it is with batteries, the missing link in replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy.

Here I cover two areas of battery technology that are transforming power management at scale. The first comes out of left field as a solution to frequency regulation in power plants. The second relates to management of excess energy generated by solar and wind, followed by dispatch of that energy when needed. At its most extreme this role may involve near complete charge and discharge once, or even twice, in a single day, every day.

Grid reliability, increased efficiency and frequency regulation

Late last month Kokam (XKRX:040480) a veteran Lithium ion South Korean battery manufacturer, announced the deployment of 3 high performance Lithium ion battery systems to provide 56MW of specialized batteries for frequency regulation in large power plants in South Korea. The batteries are: two Kokam Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt (NMC) battery systems with capacities of 24 MW/9 MWh and 16MW/6MWh, and a 16MW/5MWh Lithium Titanate Oxide (LTO) battery system. The LTO system was implemented first. While LTO technology is robust, with less dependence on temperature control, it is more expensive than NMC batteries and the specifications from the utilities often require temperature control (hence housing in containers which are cooled or heated). I suspect that NMC will become the preferred technology for frequency regulation.

The 24MW NMC battery system is the largest used in the world for frequency regulation. These batteries provide the Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) (NYSE:KEP) with ~10% of the frequency regulation needed to allow its entire system to run largely with batteries. KEPCO plans to install ~500MW of rapid response batteries by 2017 to effectively wean South Korea off the need for fossil fuel to provide this reserve power need for frequency regulation. Several battery manufacturers are involved in this project (Kokam, LG Chem (OTC:LGCLF), Samsung (OTC:SSNLF). It isn't clear how much KEPCO has already installed but it may be as much as 230MW of batteries for frequency regulation.

South Korea is special in that it has a single power authority, KEPCO, which is largely responsible for managing the nation's power capacity. So it is possible for one organization to setup a national program to manage 65 GW of power capacity. This capacity is mostly coal powered (~47GW) but with substantial nuclear and hydro capacity (~18GW). There is a very small contribution of wind and solar renewable energy in South Korea.

Currently ~5% of the coal needed to run a coal fired plant is dedicated to frequency regulation, so having batteries take over this role is a substantial saving in coal used. More importantly the South Korean plans (within 2 years!) indicate one of the first examples of batteries assuming a central role in an aspect of power generation that has been seen as a fossil fuel role.

Clearly Kokam doesn't see South Korea as the only market for this role and they have pilot facilities (2-5MW) being reviewed in both Germany and the US. Kokam has the capacity to deliver 100's of MW of the NMC frequency regulation batteries at short notice.

There is a lot of interest in fast response Lithium batteries and a substantial system (2MW) was recently announced in the UK using Toshiba (OTCPK:TOSYY) Lithium Titanate batteries in association with energy company E.ON (OTCPK:E.ON) and it's wholly owned subsidiary Uniper at the Willenhall substation. E.ON also has a 10MW/2.5MWh battery system under development with Tucson Electric Power in Arizona. E.ON is shortlisted for a 250MW tender for frequency response storage in the UK and Kokam is involved in tendering, so Korea's implementation is being watched in Europe too.

Interestingly lithium technology is being used to replace lead acid batteries by Duke Energy (NYSE:DUK) in a 35MW facility. There are also major frequency regulation projects in Canada (e.g. 12MW system in Ontario's Independent Electrical System Operator).

These Lithium NMC and LTO batteries are also useful for peak load management improving power quality and reliability in solar and wind applications, and also for spinning reserve applications.

Energy management for renewable energy

This is a big one, as you need a way to store and then access the intermittent power from solar PV and wind. Unlike the frequency regulation application described above, which needs fast, but short term response and high power delivery, energy arbitrage for solar and wind smoothing requires slower and longer term charge/discharge (up to over a number of hours).

A frequency regulation application has a high life cycle (10,000, compared with 4000-8000 with arbitrage), high power (i.e higher than arbitrage), but lower energy density than arbitrage. Because frequency regulation is a special rapid application it is more costly than an arbitrage battery.

The actual needs for energy management at scale are more varied than frequency regulation and so the actual configurations for batteries for this purpose are still evolving. It might be that the critical requirement is ramp rate control, or charge/discharge over hours may be more critical. Battery manufacturers are focusing in on their preferred configurations. For example Kokam has a High Energy NMC battery for energy management at scale.

For the technically minded here are a couple of links to give a sense of the kinds of lithium battery technology and how the different formulations behave. A good summary is here, and for those who want a deeper dive into lithium battery chemistry, here is a pretty up to date article.

Energy management applications for renewable power generation

Pumped hydro

Pumped hydro has a significant role in energy storage and this is well established with 140GW of pumped hydro already implemented. This large scale storage allows long term (even seasonal) energy storage.

There are surely many old mines, with tailing dams at the top and down below an open cut mine, that can be flooded. GW levels of power can be addressed in such schemes, but the capital costs are not small and they attract controversy because of their size. Two pumped hydro projects in California, Eagle Mountain and Iowa Hill, have been on this path for a long time, but capital and approvals are elusive.

Lithium batteries

This is happening at several levels. The easy one involves home solar PV systems linking with a home battery. Because it is a small cost (relatively) and the market is big (1.5 million homes in Australia have solar PV), just about all of the battery providers are interested. Here numbers matter as many small systems add up to a lot of power managed and it is managed locally (at the individual house level).

The harder thing is larger scale energy management, and detractors of Lithium batteries point to frequency regulation to indicate why Lithium batteries are inappropriate for energy arbitrage. However, Lithium battery chemistry configured for frequency regulation is not the only chemistry or configuration for lithium batteries, as Tesla is doing fine with its electric cars that have a range of several hundred miles and hence can discharge over many hours.

It seems that a 40ft container housing a 2-2.5MWh system is the scale for a number of utility energy management systems, but systems as large as 100MWh give a sense of the scale being implemented. Obviously a 100MWh plant would involve 40 x 2.5MWh 40ft containers.

Utilities adopting lithium battery energy management applications

There are now many multiple MW systems being installed for this kind of application. Kokam gives details of 12 of its systems installed in the US, South Korea and Australia that have more than 1MW power capacity. In 2015 Kokam alone installed 85MW of battery storage systems and 75MW of that capacity was larger than 1MW.

Substantial lithium batteries are also being adopted (along with solar PV) in remote and mining communities to partially substitute for diesel-powered systems. For example a remote indigenous community in Northern Australia is installing a 2MWh lithium battery storage system to store solar PV and take over grid forming functions from a diesel system. This will allow switchoff of the diesel system during the day as well as storing solar PV produced power.

Lithium batteries as part of a renewable energy project

Clearly renewable energy projects are considering including arbitrage, as there are various management functions that batteries do well, and holding the power generated to be delivered at a time when the value of the energy is greater may make sense. An early example of this kind of arbitrage involves Statoil (NYSE:STO) which recently announced a pilot 1MWh Lithium battery (technology not given) storage system to complement its Hywind Scottish floating 30MW wind farm.

Image : Statoil Hywind turbine

However, there are other battery technologies for deep charge/discharge on a daily basis. While at an earlier stage of development, flow batteries seem well suited to this task. It is a race to see if flow batteries will get a place at the table or whether lithium batteries now have sufficient momentum to dominate the battery arbitrage space.

Update on flow batteries

Six months ago I wrote an article on three flow battery companies (Redflow (ASX:RFX), Imergy Power Systems and ViZn Energy which had partnered with substantial manufacturing companies (Flextronics (NASDAQ:FLEX), Foxconn (OTC:FXCOF) (TWSE:2354) and JBL Circuit (NYSE:JBL) respectively for manufacture of their flow batteries.

While it is too soon to see a lot of progress, there have been developments in each of the partnerships.

Redflow/Flextronics ZnBr flow batteries :

The last 6 months have seen substantial progress with Flextronics now assuming 100% of manufacturing from Redflow. Flextronics now controls all aspects of manufacturing of the RedFlow batteries, with production ramp up in April 2016.

In 2015 in partnership with FLEX, manufacturing costs have been decreased by 15%, the lifecycle/longevity has been improved and cycle cost/kWh over battery lifetime decreased by 50%. Redflow will soon deliver an on-grid demonstration 0.1MW/0.48MWh flow battery system to Ergon Energy.

In addition to exploring remote markets around the world, Redflow is entering the Australian home battery market with a smaller offering. The Redflow share price has doubled since the start of 2016.

Imergy Power Systems/Foxconn :

It is too early to know how the Imergy projects in India, China and Africa are proceeding, although the status of the Sun Edison (NYSE:SUNE) purchase of up to 1000 of Imergy's vanadium flow batteries for implementing in India could be problematic given the disaster that has recently befallen SUNE and news that it is not supporting its activities in India. The rumor is that Adani (IN:ADANIT) may be interested in SUNE's Indian projects.

Recently (end of February 2016) SUNE announced agreement with Ontario Independent Electricity System Operator (Ontario IESO) to supply an Imergy 5MW/20MWh system in 2017; this was to be SUNE's first large scale grid-connected energy storage project and it will need to be restructured with SUNE in difficulty. Imergy and Foxconn will need to think creatively about diversifying the route to market for their flow batteries.

ViZn Energy/JBL Circuit : ViZn reported 20% improved capacity and reduced life cycle degradation, which is important for frequency regulation applications.

At the end of the day there will be winners and losers and here sits the dilemma for investors. Is it still too soon to know which technology to back and which companies to invest in? Given the intense interest in frequency regulation I suspect that this market, will be satisfied soon by companies like Kokam and LG Chem who have done the hard yards on understanding Lithium battery chemistry. I suspect that for management of renewable energy it will end up a combination of pumped hydro, Lithium and flow battery technologies, with the latter becoming increasingly important.

What is abundantly clear is that all investors need to look carefully at their fossil fuel portfolios, as the complacency that the switch to renewable energy (with storage) is going to take a long time seems misguided in 2016.

Conclusion

This story about battery storage starting to do heavy lifting has implications in two areas of large scale energy supply: frequency regulation and management of renewable energy. It will help resolve issues of intermittency of renewable energy. The impact will be felt not only on adoption of renewable energy (and hence solar and wind companies) but also on fossil fuel power generation. Investors in fossil fuels should think carefully about where this is heading.

Disclosure: I am/we are long ASX:RFX.

I wrote this article myself, and it expresses my own opinions. I am not receiving compensation for it (other than from Seeking Alpha). I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is mentioned in this article.

Editor's Note: This article covers one or more stocks trading at less than $1 per share and/or with less than a $100 million market cap. Please be aware of the risks associated with these stocks.

Solar Power System For Home

How to Remove Solar Water Heater Panels From a Roof

Caption: Kokam 24-megawatt Energy Storage System (NYSE:ESS), used by South Korea's largest utility, Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO): world's largest Lithium NMC ESS for frequency regulation

Sometimes technology creeps up on you before you realize what is happening. Then something happens to get your attention and you realize that things are changing fast. And so it is with batteries, the missing link in replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy.

Here I cover two areas of battery technology that are transforming power management at scale. The first comes out of left field as a solution to frequency regulation in power plants. The second relates to management of excess energy generated by solar and wind, followed by dispatch of that energy when needed. At its most extreme this role may involve near complete charge and discharge once, or even twice, in a single day, every day.

Grid reliability, increased efficiency and frequency regulation

Late last month Kokam (XKRX:040480) a veteran Lithium ion South Korean battery manufacturer, announced the deployment of 3 high performance Lithium ion battery systems to provide 56MW of specialized batteries for frequency regulation in large power plants in South Korea. The batteries are: two Kokam Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt (NMC) battery systems with capacities of 24 MW/9 MWh and 16MW/6MWh, and a 16MW/5MWh Lithium Titanate Oxide (LTO) battery system. The LTO system was implemented first. While LTO technology is robust, with less dependence on temperature control, it is more expensive than NMC batteries and the specifications from the utilities often require temperature control (hence housing in containers which are cooled or heated). I suspect that NMC will become the preferred technology for frequency regulation.

The 24MW NMC battery system is the largest used in the world for frequency regulation. These batteries provide the Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) (NYSE:KEP) with ~10% of the frequency regulation needed to allow its entire system to run largely with batteries. KEPCO plans to install ~500MW of rapid response batteries by 2017 to effectively wean South Korea off the need for fossil fuel to provide this reserve power need for frequency regulation. Several battery manufacturers are involved in this project (Kokam, LG Chem (OTC:LGCLF), Samsung (OTC:SSNLF). It isn't clear how much KEPCO has already installed but it may be as much as 230MW of batteries for frequency regulation.

South Korea is special in that it has a single power authority, KEPCO, which is largely responsible for managing the nation's power capacity. So it is possible for one organization to setup a national program to manage 65 GW of power capacity. This capacity is mostly coal powered (~47GW) but with substantial nuclear and hydro capacity (~18GW). There is a very small contribution of wind and solar renewable energy in South Korea.

Currently ~5% of the coal needed to run a coal fired plant is dedicated to frequency regulation, so having batteries take over this role is a substantial saving in coal used. More importantly the South Korean plans (within 2 years!) indicate one of the first examples of batteries assuming a central role in an aspect of power generation that has been seen as a fossil fuel role.

Clearly Kokam doesn't see South Korea as the only market for this role and they have pilot facilities (2-5MW) being reviewed in both Germany and the US. Kokam has the capacity to deliver 100's of MW of the NMC frequency regulation batteries at short notice.

There is a lot of interest in fast response Lithium batteries and a substantial system (2MW) was recently announced in the UK using Toshiba (OTCPK:TOSYY) Lithium Titanate batteries in association with energy company E.ON (OTCPK:E.ON) and it's wholly owned subsidiary Uniper at the Willenhall substation. E.ON also has a 10MW/2.5MWh battery system under development with Tucson Electric Power in Arizona. E.ON is shortlisted for a 250MW tender for frequency response storage in the UK and Kokam is involved in tendering, so Korea's implementation is being watched in Europe too.

Interestingly lithium technology is being used to replace lead acid batteries by Duke Energy (NYSE:DUK) in a 35MW facility. There are also major frequency regulation projects in Canada (e.g. 12MW system in Ontario's Independent Electrical System Operator).

These Lithium NMC and LTO batteries are also useful for peak load management improving power quality and reliability in solar and wind applications, and also for spinning reserve applications.

Energy management for renewable energy

This is a big one, as you need a way to store and then access the intermittent power from solar PV and wind. Unlike the frequency regulation application described above, which needs fast, but short term response and high power delivery, energy arbitrage for solar and wind smoothing requires slower and longer term charge/discharge (up to over a number of hours).

A frequency regulation application has a high life cycle (10,000, compared with 4000-8000 with arbitrage), high power (i.e higher than arbitrage), but lower energy density than arbitrage. Because frequency regulation is a special rapid application it is more costly than an arbitrage battery.

The actual needs for energy management at scale are more varied than frequency regulation and so the actual configurations for batteries for this purpose are still evolving. It might be that the critical requirement is ramp rate control, or charge/discharge over hours may be more critical. Battery manufacturers are focusing in on their preferred configurations. For example Kokam has a High Energy NMC battery for energy management at scale.

For the technically minded here are a couple of links to give a sense of the kinds of lithium battery technology and how the different formulations behave. A good summary is here, and for those who want a deeper dive into lithium battery chemistry, here is a pretty up to date article.

Energy management applications for renewable power generation

Pumped hydro

Pumped hydro has a significant role in energy storage and this is well established with 140GW of pumped hydro already implemented. This large scale storage allows long term (even seasonal) energy storage.

There are surely many old mines, with tailing dams at the top and down below an open cut mine, that can be flooded. GW levels of power can be addressed in such schemes, but the capital costs are not small and they attract controversy because of their size. Two pumped hydro projects in California, Eagle Mountain and Iowa Hill, have been on this path for a long time, but capital and approvals are elusive.

Lithium batteries

This is happening at several levels. The easy one involves home solar PV systems linking with a home battery. Because it is a small cost (relatively) and the market is big (1.5 million homes in Australia have solar PV), just about all of the battery providers are interested. Here numbers matter as many small systems add up to a lot of power managed and it is managed locally (at the individual house level).

The harder thing is larger scale energy management, and detractors of Lithium batteries point to frequency regulation to indicate why Lithium batteries are inappropriate for energy arbitrage. However, Lithium battery chemistry configured for frequency regulation is not the only chemistry or configuration for lithium batteries, as Tesla is doing fine with its electric cars that have a range of several hundred miles and hence can discharge over many hours.

It seems that a 40ft container housing a 2-2.5MWh system is the scale for a number of utility energy management systems, but systems as large as 100MWh give a sense of the scale being implemented. Obviously a 100MWh plant would involve 40 x 2.5MWh 40ft containers.

Utilities adopting lithium battery energy management applications

There are now many multiple MW systems being installed for this kind of application. Kokam gives details of 12 of its systems installed in the US, South Korea and Australia that have more than 1MW power capacity. In 2015 Kokam alone installed 85MW of battery storage systems and 75MW of that capacity was larger than 1MW.

Substantial lithium batteries are also being adopted (along with solar PV) in remote and mining communities to partially substitute for diesel-powered systems. For example a remote indigenous community in Northern Australia is installing a 2MWh lithium battery storage system to store solar PV and take over grid forming functions from a diesel system. This will allow switchoff of the diesel system during the day as well as storing solar PV produced power.

Lithium batteries as part of a renewable energy project

Clearly renewable energy projects are considering including arbitrage, as there are various management functions that batteries do well, and holding the power generated to be delivered at a time when the value of the energy is greater may make sense. An early example of this kind of arbitrage involves Statoil (NYSE:STO) which recently announced a pilot 1MWh Lithium battery (technology not given) storage system to complement its Hywind Scottish floating 30MW wind farm.

Image : Statoil Hywind turbine

However, there are other battery technologies for deep charge/discharge on a daily basis. While at an earlier stage of development, flow batteries seem well suited to this task. It is a race to see if flow batteries will get a place at the table or whether lithium batteries now have sufficient momentum to dominate the battery arbitrage space.

Update on flow batteries

Six months ago I wrote an article on three flow battery companies (Redflow (ASX:RFX), Imergy Power Systems and ViZn Energy which had partnered with substantial manufacturing companies (Flextronics (NASDAQ:FLEX), Foxconn (OTC:FXCOF) (TWSE:2354) and JBL Circuit (NYSE:JBL) respectively for manufacture of their flow batteries.

While it is too soon to see a lot of progress, there have been developments in each of the partnerships.

Redflow/Flextronics ZnBr flow batteries :

The last 6 months have seen substantial progress with Flextronics now assuming 100% of manufacturing from Redflow. Flextronics now controls all aspects of manufacturing of the RedFlow batteries, with production ramp up in April 2016.

In 2015 in partnership with FLEX, manufacturing costs have been decreased by 15%, the lifecycle/longevity has been improved and cycle cost/kWh over battery lifetime decreased by 50%. Redflow will soon deliver an on-grid demonstration 0.1MW/0.48MWh flow battery system to Ergon Energy.

In addition to exploring remote markets around the world, Redflow is entering the Australian home battery market with a smaller offering. The Redflow share price has doubled since the start of 2016.

Imergy Power Systems/Foxconn :

It is too early to know how the Imergy projects in India, China and Africa are proceeding, although the status of the Sun Edison (NYSE:SUNE) purchase of up to 1000 of Imergy's vanadium flow batteries for implementing in India could be problematic given the disaster that has recently befallen SUNE and news that it is not supporting its activities in India. The rumor is that Adani (IN:ADANIT) may be interested in SUNE's Indian projects.

Recently (end of February 2016) SUNE announced agreement with Ontario Independent Electricity System Operator (Ontario IESO) to supply an Imergy 5MW/20MWh system in 2017; this was to be SUNE's first large scale grid-connected energy storage project and it will need to be restructured with SUNE in difficulty. Imergy and Foxconn will need to think creatively about diversifying the route to market for their flow batteries.

ViZn Energy/JBL Circuit : ViZn reported 20% improved capacity and reduced life cycle degradation, which is important for frequency regulation applications.

At the end of the day there will be winners and losers and here sits the dilemma for investors. Is it still too soon to know which technology to back and which companies to invest in? Given the intense interest in frequency regulation I suspect that this market, will be satisfied soon by companies like Kokam and LG Chem who have done the hard yards on understanding Lithium battery chemistry. I suspect that for management of renewable energy it will end up a combination of pumped hydro, Lithium and flow battery technologies, with the latter becoming increasingly important.

What is abundantly clear is that all investors need to look carefully at their fossil fuel portfolios, as the complacency that the switch to renewable energy (with storage) is going to take a long time seems misguided in 2016.

Conclusion

This story about battery storage starting to do heavy lifting has implications in two areas of large scale energy supply: frequency regulation and management of renewable energy. It will help resolve issues of intermittency of renewable energy. The impact will be felt not only on adoption of renewable energy (and hence solar and wind companies) but also on fossil fuel power generation. Investors in fossil fuels should think carefully about where this is heading.

Disclosure: I am/we are long ASX:RFX.

I wrote this article myself, and it expresses my own opinions. I am not receiving compensation for it (other than from Seeking Alpha). I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is mentioned in this article.

Editor's Note: This article covers one or more stocks trading at less than $1 per share and/or with less than a $100 million market cap. Please be aware of the risks associated with these stocks.

Rancho Santa Fe

How to Heat and Light a House Without Electricity


Solar Panels San Diego

Chula Vista Solar Calculator

So, what exactly is involved in calculating solar panels cost in Chula Vista? When thinking about solar power very few people know the way the cost of solar panel systems is actually measured. Or even, for that matter, do we automatically grasp the connection relating to the cost of solar power and the value of solar power. We all know that gasoline prices are in dollars per gallon. We likewise are all aware of approximately how far we’ll be able to drive after spending 40 bucks for a tank of gas. In contrast to a tank of gas, the value of which can be consumed pretty much instantly, solar panels deliver their value across a period of time.

Cost To Install Solar Panels

Chula Vista 3 Undervalued Solar Leaders

Solar panels are a source of alternative energy and can be constructed at home and mounted on the roof of a house. Depending on the amount of panels that are used, a significant amount of money can be saved on energy bills by using solar energy. When constructing solar panels, the two main choices for the body of the panel are Plexiglas or tempered glass -- it is important to know the specifications of both types of glass to meet the needs of your solar panels. Advantages of Plexiglas Panels Plexiglas panels are made of acrylic material, which means that they can be cut easily with a band saw. Plexiglas allows about 90 percent of light rays to pass through it to the solar cells. Despite allowing this much light through to the solar cells, Plexiglas protects the solar cells very well from wear, ensuring that they last as long as possible. Advantages of Tempered Glass Panels Tempered glass panels are more durable than Plexiglas -- this is important to consider in residential neighborhoods, as a stray ball can hit a solar panel. A crack in a tempered glass panel will not impede the solar cells from working properly. Tempered glass is also easy to cut -- this makes it easier to fit on panels of all shapes. Disadvantages of Plexiglas Panels Plexiglas has a softer outer surface than tempered glass and can crack or scratch easily, leading to solar cells being blocked from receiving solar rays. Plexiglas does not bend easily, which requires that it be supported on the solar panel -- failure to provide proper support can result in the Plexiglas panel cracking. Disadvantages of Tempered Glass Panels The cost of tempered glass is typically higher than that of Plexiglas (tempered glass can cost up to $150 per sheet as of 2011) and does not allow as much light to penetrate to the solar panels, reducing the efficiency of the cells. Although tempered glass sheets are durable, there exists the risk that they may shatter, which could block the solar cells from receiving light. A sheet of shattered tempered glass will also allow moisture into the panel, which will eventually ruin the solar cells. Related Searches References RPlastics: Plexiglas Primer Energy Matters: Solar Panel -- Plate vs. Tempered Glass Promoted By Zergnet Comments Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus. You May Also Like Glass Vs. Plexiglass In general, glass is cheaper to purchase than plexiglass, is more scratch resistant and more easily recycled. Plexiglass, on the other hand,... Acrylic Vs. Plexi Glass Acrylic and Plexiglass are often used interchangeably in product literature concerning sheet plastic. While Plexiglass is made from acrylic, there are subtle... Types of Glass Solar Panels Solar panels come in many forms and are made from multiple components. The glass components of solar collectors vary in form and... Solar Water Heater

How to Heat and Light a House Without Electricity

Solar Panel image by kuhar from Fotolia.com Although it comes with a steep price tag, building your own solar energy system comes with many benefits. Depending on how much installation you do yourself, your payback period can be dramatically reduced. Building your own system requires advanced knowledge of home-improvement techniques, including electrical, circuitry and roofing. This project may take four to five full days of work, depending on how large of a system you are installing. Things You'll Need Pen Paper Solar panel kit Mounts Silicone with caulking gun Power drill Heat gun Charge controller Deep cycle batteries Insulated electrical wire AC inverter Wire strippers Soldering iron Adhesive-lined heat shrink tubing Electrical tape Write down on a sheet of paper the appliances that you are desiring to operate with solar power. Write out the total amp rating of each appliance as well as the number of hours that each appliance will operate throughout the day. Multiply the the amp rating for each appliance by the number of hours you plan to operate it. This number will indicate the total amp hours that you need to provide through your solar power system. Generally, the total amp hours from your appliances should equal no more than 50 percent of the total capacity of your battery bank. For example, if you plan to use your appliances for 200 amp hours on a daily basis, your battery bank should a charge up to 400 amp hours. This will help to determine the number of batteries that you need, however, the amperage on deep cycle batteries vary depending on which product you purchase for your system. Mount the solar panels on the south-facing portion of your roof-top by using a power drill and the mounting kits provided with the solar panels. Solar panels should be angled so that they match the latitude of your location, plus or minus 15 degrees depending on seasonal adjustments for the height of the sun. For example, if you live at a location where the latitudinal coordinate is 30 degrees, the panels should be mounted 30 degrees from horizontal. If your kit includes the ability to change the angle at which the solar panels are mounted, you should add an additional 15 degrees during summer months and subtract 15 degrees in the winter, when the sun's height is lower in the sky for a shorter duration of time. Solder 12 gauge electrical wiring to the two output terminals found on the side of the solar panel. The black 12 gauge wire should continue from the positive terminal of the solar panel and the white wire should connect with the negative terminal. Use the green wire to connect to the solar panel's frame as a way to ground the wire. Expose at least one inch of the copper wire by stripping the sheath of the two wires you are joining together. Twist the two wires being joined together into an "X," wrapping the first wire's end along the length of the second wire until the first wire's end is completely wrapped around the second wire. Repeat the same process for the second wire. Heat the joint by holding the soldering iron beneath the wire joint. Apply the soldering iron and solder to the top part of the joint, adding more of the soldering wire until the joint is completely covered with solder and the exposed wires are no longer visible. Wrap adhesive-lined heat shrink tubing around the newly soldered joint, heating it tubing with a heat gun until it covers the solder. Connect the ends of the extended wiring coming from the solar panels to a charge controller, which has screw-on connections for input wires. The charge controller prevents the deep-cycle batteries from becoming overloaded, thus reducing the maintenance and cost of your solar power system. The charge controller should also be stored adjacent to the batteries. Wire the deep-cycle batteries together so that they form a circuit by using either a parallel or series pattern. Use 8-gauge wire to connect the batteries. To connect the batteries into a series circuit, which doubles the voltage of the system, wire the negative terminal of one battery to the positive terminal of its adjacent battery. Continue this pattern until all terminals are connected. To connect the batteries into a parallel circuit (which doubles the amperage of the system) connect the positive terminal of one battery to the positive terminal of its adjacent battery. Do the same for the negative terminals on your deep-cycle batteries as well. Install the input wires from the AC inverter, which are equipped with screw-on joints to mate with the battery terminals. The inverter will change the Direct Current from the batteries to Alternating Current, which is a usable form of electricity that home appliances utilize. Connect the ends output cables of the charge controller to the deep-cycle battery circuit. The charge controller's output cables, black for negative and red for positive, also screw onto the battery terminals with a screwdriver. Other People Are Reading How to Get 48V out of a 12V Solar System How to Self-Install Solar Electric Plug your appliances into the outlets of your AC inverter and turn the inverter on. Tips & Warnings Currently, the 3-stage charge controller is the industry standard, however, using a Maximum Power Point Tracking controller will provide greater efficiency, especially if you are installing a larger system. Although a solar system is quite complicated to build, thinking of it in terms of "layers" may be helpful. The sun powers the solar cells, which are connected to a charge controller, which connect to the batteries, which connect to an inverter. Related Searches References Solar 4 Power: Solar Power Don Rowe: Power Inverter FAQ Green Living Tips: Solar Power Basics Photo Credit Solar Panel image by kuhar from Fotolia.com Promoted By Zergnet Comments Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus. Resources Aaron Cake: Soldering Electronics Solar 4 Power: Batteries Free Sunpower: FAQ You May Also Like How to Build Solar Panels for Electricity With energy rates on the rise, building your own solar panel is an economical, smart, and rewarding way to produce your own... How to Understand & Install Your Own Solar Electric System The most visible components of a photovoltaic (PV) energy-generation system are the solar panels. You usually don't see the devices that convert... How to Build Your Own Solar Energy You can harness the energy of the sun to use at home through solar panels. Commercially available solar panels are expensive, and... How to Build Cheap Solar Energy Systems You may have been considering solar power for some time but have been putting it off because of the high initial investment....

Chula Vista

SunPower: A Super Solar Stock With Amazing Upside Potential - SunPower Corporation (NASDAQ:SPWR)


Solar Panels San Diego