## South Park Solar Power Companies

So, what exactly is involved in calculating solar panels cost in South Park? When thinking about solar power very few people know the way the cost of solar panel systems is actually measured. Or even, for that matter, do we automatically grasp the connection relating to the cost of solar power and the value of solar power. We all know that gasoline prices are in dollars per gallon. We likewise are all aware of approximately how far we’ll be able to drive after spending 40 bucks for a tank of gas. In contrast to a tank of gas, the value of which can be consumed pretty much instantly, solar panels deliver their value across a period of time.

## South ParkĀ 3 Undervalued Solar Leaders

solar cell research image by Albert Lozano from Fotolia.com If you go camping or hunting, or simply want to reduce your electricity bill, then a solar panel might make a good investment for you. Solar panels can charge batteries and run tools and appliances, all for free. They require no fuel, and because they have no moving parts, they need very little in the way of repair and maintenance. The only cost associated with solar panels is the up-front purchase cost. Even this can be reduced by making your own solar panels at home. Things You'll Need Solar cells Sheet of plywood Saw Narrow wooden strips Electrically conductive glue Spool of wire Wire cutters with wire-stripping attachments Silicone caulk Calculate the number of solar cells you will need to make your solar panel. Different cells provide different voltages. Divide the voltage you want your panel to produce by the voltage rating of your solar cells. This will give you the number of cells you need to produce 12 volts. Add a couple volts' worth of cells to this number to eliminate the danger of backcharging, which can damage your solar panel. Cut the plywood into a size just large enough to hold all the cells you need for your panel. Glue the narrow wooden strips all around the perimeter of the plywood you have cut. After your cell is assembled, these will hold up the Plexiglas cover to protect your panel from damage. Leave a small gap between two of the strips to run the wires out of the panel. Attach the solar cells to the panel of plywood, using the electrically conductive glue. Leave a small amount of this glue peeking above the top of each cell in order to form an electric link to the terminals on the bottoms of the cells. This edge of glue will be referred to as the "negative terminal" of each cell. Cut 6-inch lengths of wire from your spool of wire, using the wire cutters. Make as many short wires as there are cells in your panel, minus one. Remove 1 inch of insulation from one end of each wire, and 3 inches from the other ends, using the wire cutters. Glue the 3-inch-bare ends of these wires to the tops of the solar cells. Do not let any glue run from the top of the cell and touch the negative terminal of that cell. Do not let any bare wire touch the negative terminals of the cells. Leave the final cell without a short wire on top. Glue each of these wires to the exposed glue peeking over the edge of the cell next to it, after having allowed the glue on the other ends to dry. Allow this glue to dry. Cut two 3-foot sections of wire off the spool. Remove 1 inch of insulation from each end. Glue one to the negative terminal of the first cell, the one without any wire connected to it. Glue the other to the top of the cell on the other end, without any wire on top. Other People Are Reading How to Make a Solar Panel How to Make Homemade Solar Power Run the long wires out through the gap between the wooden strips. Glue them to the sides of the solar panel so that there is no possibility they will touch each other, which could short out your panel. Cut the Plexiglas sheet to match the size of your panel. Glue it to the top of the wooden strips. When the glue is dry, seal all the edges with silicone caulk to protect it from water. Tips & Warnings You can increase the power of your panel without changing the voltage by building other panels identical to the first. Connect their negative terminal wires to the negative terminal wire of the first panel, and their positive terminal wires (the wires connected to the top of the last solar cell) to the positive terminal wires of the first panel. Related Searches References SchoolPower Naturally: Solar Education for NY Solatron Technologies: Learn How to Wire Solar Panels and Batteries Photo Credit solar cell research image by Albert Lozano from Fotolia.com Promoted By Zergnet Comments Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus. Resources Green Living Tips: Solar Panel Basics You May Also Like How to Make a Solar Panel Solar cells convert the energy of the sun into electricity. By using items commonly found in the home or your local hardware... How to Make a Solar Panel Model A model of a solar panel can be a great visual aid for your science projects. Models help people to visualize how... How to Make Homemade Solar Power Humans have been using solar power for thousands of years to heat their homes. Making solar panels to collect and store the... Alternative Energy: How to Make Solar Cells & Solar Panels Free Solar Panel Construction Plans Free solar panel construction plans are available in a variety of places online. Some tutorials cover how a specific person built their...

## How to Install Solar Panels on a Tile Roof

Recent Macro News

Source: Wallstreetdaily, SCMP, CNN Money

The last 2 quarters have seen influential countries such as china, India and Saudi Arabia announce heavy commitments to investing in solar infrastructure. The news isn't particularly surprising if you are aware of the hazardous pollution levels in China and India. China, the most populated country in the world, claimed that it will spend over \$361 billion on renewable energy development by 2020. According to China's National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), 40% of that spending will go towards solar and that will result in more than 1000 major solar plants, boosting china's solar capacity by 5 times.

Khalid Al-Falih, the energy minister of Saudi Arabia, announced that the oil capital of the world plans to spend as much as \$50 billion on renewable energy. The short-term goal is to generate 10 GW of electricity through solar and wind by 2023. Al-Falih remarks that the long-term goal is to have renewable energy account for 30% of the country's total energy consumption by 2030.

Forbes states that India has installed 5.4 GW in 2016, and the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy estimates 15 GW (estimates to around 22% of global demand in 2017) and 16 GW of solar installation for the next two years. The Indian Government aims to accumulate 100 GW of solar by 2022, a feat which will require around \$90 billion in total.

The combined future solar spending by these three countries, as well as the rest of the world, is an enormous pie to split between the big players in industry. In this article, I will use fundamental data to compare First Solar (NASDAQ:FSLR), Canadian Solar (NASDAQ:CSIQ) and JinkoSolar (NYSE:JKS), 3 heavily undervalued solar leaders which are well positioned to meet increasing global demand. All financial figures are expressed in USD via Bloomberg.

Market Cap

Source: Bloomberg

First Solar's \$3.94 billion market cap is by far the largest in this group. First Solar is the only company on this list headquartered in the US and has an American management team. Canadian Solar's \$855 million market cap is the next highest. Canadian Solar is based in Guelph, Canada, but the management team and production is predominantly Chinese. JinkoSolar's \$542 million market is the lowest of the bunch. The company is entirely Chinese from its headquarters to production.

Revenue & Gross Profit & Net income

Source: Bloomberg

Please note that analyst consensus Q4 revenue and net income are used to estimate full-year 2016 revenue for Canadian Solar and JinkoSolar. On a GAAP basis, First Solar reported \$2.951 billion in revenue and \$704 million in gross profit for 2016. Net income came out to be -\$382 million due to a \$729 million unusual expense which we believe to be asset write-offs. Canadian Solar is expected to earn \$2.871 billion in revenue, \$459 million in gross profit and \$89 million in net income. JinkoSolar is projected to pull in \$3.331 billion in revenue, \$647 million gross profit and \$125 million in net income. JinkoSolar leads the pack in revenue and net income due to the tremendous demand for solar in China, where JinkoSolar conducts a majority of its business. First Solar boasts the highest gross margin at 24% while Canadian Solar and JinkoSolar have gross margins of 16% and 19%, respectively.

Source: Bloomberg

Cash & Debt

Source: Bloomberg

Looking at the balance sheets of these 3 companies, it's clear why First Solar is trading at a higher earnings multiple compared to its peers. First Solar currently has more than 10x cash on hand than total debt and actually received \$5 million in interest income in 2016. Canadian Solar has \$481 million cash on hand and a heavy debt load of \$2.344 billion. The company is paying an estimated \$52 million in interest expense (first 3 quarters annualized). JinkoSolar has \$2.663 billion in debt, the highest of the three and dwarfs First Solar's debt of \$188 million. JinkoSolar is estimated to pay a substantial \$95 million interest payment in 2016 (first 3 quarters annualized). Although Canadian Solar and JinkoSolar are carrying high levels of debt, one must note that Canadian Solar and JinkoSolar have historically financed their projects with debt rather than equity.

Current Price vs. Book Value

Source: Bloomberg

All three solar leaders are currently undervalued relative to their book value. First Solar, with over \$2.4 billion in retained earnings, is trading 22% below book value. JinkoSolar has been GAAP profitable for the past 10 quarters and accumulated \$339 million in retained earnings during the same period. JinkoSolar is currently trading 28% below book value. Canadian Solar at its current price of \$15 is trading just \$1 below its book value of \$16, but the company has been steadily growing its retained earnings from \$47 million in Q4 2014 to \$294 million as of Q3 2016.

Analyst Targets

Source: 4-traders

First Solar, with 22 covering analysts, has 5 buy ratings, 4 sell ratings and 13 hold ratings. First Solar is currently trading right around the analyst target of \$35.9. Canadian Solar, with 2 buy ratings, 2 sell ratings and 7 hold ratings, is trading slightly below its price target of \$15.2. JinkoSolar, with only 7 covering analysts, has 3 buy ratings and 4 hold ratings. The analyst target of \$23.2 represents a 36% upside from the stock's current price.

Personal Holding

Although we believe all three stocks have bright futures, we currently hold Canadian Solar only. Although Canadian Solar's P/E is not as low as JinkoSolar's and the company's book value is below both of its peers, we remain enticed by Canadian Solar's diverse project portfolio. Since its inception, 100% of JinkoSolar's revenue came from the People's Republic of China. In 2016, 83% of First Solar's revenue came from the US, 5.4% came from India and 11.7% from various other countries. For the 12 months ending 9/30/2016, Canadian Solar derived 41.7% of its revenue from Asia, 46.8% from America (a good portion of which is from Canada) and 11.5% from Europe + other foreign countries. We believe Canadian Solar's diversified global presence positions the company tremendously to meet the increasing global demand for solar. We will continue to buy on dips and may initiate a position in JinkoSolar in the near future.

Source: Bloomberg

Disclosure: I am/we are long CSIQ.

I wrote this article myself, and it expresses my own opinions. I am not receiving compensation for it (other than from Seeking Alpha). I have no business relationship with any company whose stock is mentioned in this article.

## Best Science Fair Project Websites for Kids

Solar Panels San Diego